Aristida scabrivalvis Hack.

First published in Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 6: 708 (1906)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tanzania to S. Africa. It is an annual and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome.

Descriptions

Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect; 15-50 cm long. Culm-internodes distally glabrous. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 3-30 cm long; 2-3.5 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; 7-30 cm long; evenly furnished, or with spikelets clustered towards branch tips. Primary panicle branches branching divaricately. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 5-8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 0.5 mm long; pilose; obtuse.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 5-8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 0.5 mm long; pilose; obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 3.5-6 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scaberulous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface glabrous, or puberulous. Lower glume apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 1-2.5 mm long. Upper glume lanceolate; 5-8 mm long; 1-1.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scaberulous. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume surface glabrous, or puberulous. Upper glume apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 1-2.5 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic; subterete; 5-7 mm long; coriaceous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein scaberulous. Lemma surface smooth, or scabrous; rough above. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute; awned; 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn 3-branched; with 10-20 mm long limb; persistent. Lateral lemma awns 10-20 mm long; subequal to principal. Palea 0.1 length of lemma; without keels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Distribution
Africa: east tropical, southern tropical, and south.
Reference
Aristideae. FTEA.
[GB]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Annual, up to 85 cm. high, caespitose.
Morphology Culms
Culms erect or ascending, slender, usually glabrous, smooth, much branched, 3-4-noded; nodes glabrous, smooth.
Morphology Leaves Leaf sheaths
Leaf-sheaths laxly embracing the culm, keeled, glabrous or minutely scaberulous, the lower often with some scattered long hairs.
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule a short-ciliolate rim; auricles densely and shortly ciliolate, often with a few long hairs, or nearly glabrous; collar glabrous.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf-laminae 30 x 0·1-0·35 cm., usually flat, fairly rigid with 1-2 pallid prominent marginal nerves, scaberulous and hirtellous above, glabrous, smooth, or minutely scaberulous beneath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle 15-30 cm. long, terminal and lateral, usually lax; axis more or less terete, glabrous in the lower part, angular, scabrous in the upper part; branches often filiform and sometimes flexuous, naked in the lower part, compressed, angular, scabrous, with a dark glandular patch in the axils.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets linear, purplish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes subequal to unequal, 1-nerved, scaberulous or hirtellous, with a scabrid keel; the inferior 4-6·5 mm. long, lanceolate, more or less gradually tapering into an awn up to 3 mm. long or with a slightly 2-fid apex, with an awn up to 2·5 mm. long from the sinus; the superior up to 5·5-6·5 mm. long, deeply 2-fid, with an awn up to 1·5 mm. long from the sinus.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Lemma 5-7 mm. long, slightly keeled, purple or green, darkly mottled, glabrous or punctulate in the lower part, with rows of coarse scabridules towards the apex, rarely glabrous all over; callus c. 1·5 mm. long, rounded to subacute, densely short-barbate; beak or column absent; awns 10-14 mm. long, subequal, erect or somewhat spreading, very scabrous; articulation absent.
Cytology
2n = 22.
Diagnostic
A distinct species which is characterized by having a large panicle, conspicuously awned, scabrid or hirtellous, subequal or unequal glumes (the superior longer than the inferior), and by a scabrid, rarely nearly glabrous lemma which is subequal or shorter than the glumes.
[FZ]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual, 15–50 cm. high or more.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear, 3–30 cm. long and up to 3.5 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle ovate, 7–30 cm. long, open, divaricate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets purple or purplish-brown; glumes linear-lanceolate, subequal or unequal, distinctly awned (awn up to 2.5 mm. long), puberulous or at least with a scabrid keel; lower glume shorter than the upper, 3.5–6 mm. long; upper glume strongly bidentate, 5–8 mm. long; lemma subterete, 5–7 mm. long, shorter than the glumes, coarsely scabrid in the upper part or at least on the keel, passing into the awn without column or articulation; callus linear, 0.5 mm. long, narrowly obtuse at the tip; awns 1–2 cm. long, scabrid.
[FTEA]

Common Names

English
Purple three-awn

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    • Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Plants and People Africa

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    • © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/