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This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe, N. Africa to Iran.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual; culms solitary, or caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 10-150 cm long; 3-5 -noded. Leaf-sheaths pubescent. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-4 mm long; erose. Leaf-blades 10-30 cm long; 3-9 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface hirsute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle glabrous, or pubescent above. Panicle open; elliptic, or oblong; effuse; nodding; 6-25 cm long. Primary panicle branches ascending; 3-12 cm long; bearing 1-4 fertile spikelets on each lower branch. Panicle branches flexuous; scabrous; glabrous, or pubescent. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 20-40 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 4-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate, or oblong; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 18-28 mm long; 4.5-7 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating early below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 4-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate, or oblong; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 18-28 mm long; 4.5-7 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating early below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas. Lower glume oblong; 5-7 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of upper glume; chartaceous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 6-9 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 5-9 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic, or obovate; 8-11 mm long; coriaceous (thinly); much thinner on margins; without keel; 7-11 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma surface scaberulous. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; 4-10 mm long overall; limb scabrous. Palea 0.8-0.9 length of lemma. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 1.5-2 mm long. Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion; pubescent on apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform; concealed by floret; hairy at apex; apex fleshy. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north and south. Asia-temperate: Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, and western Asia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, and southwest USA. South America: Brazil and southern South America.
Reference
Bromeae. Acedo 1996.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Krym, Libya, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sicilia, Spain, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Baltic States, Brazil South, Cape Provinces, Colorado, Denmark, District of Columbia, Florida, Free State, Illinois, Kentucky, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Northwest European R, Primorye, Sweden, Taiwan, Tennessee, Uruguay, Vermont, Victoria, Wisconsin

Bromus commutatus Schrad. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Fl. Germ.: 353 (1806)

Accepted by

  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Wisconsin Flora ed. 2: 1-818. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
  • Ibrahim, K.M. & Peterson, P.M. (2014). Grasses of Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 99: 1-128.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
  • Lustyk, P. & Doležal, J. (eds.) (2018). Additamenta ad floram Reipublicae Bohemicae - XVI Zprávy Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 53: 31-112.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Packer, J.G. & Gould, J. (2007). Vascular Plants of alberta 1: 1-281. University of Calgary Press.
  • Saarela, J.M., Peterson, P.M. & Váldes-Reyna, J. (2014). A taxonomic revision of Bromus (Poaceae: Pooideae: Bromeae) in México and Central America Phytotaxa 185(1): 1-147.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. New York Botanical Garden.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Wisconsin Flora ed. 2: 1-818. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Chilton, L. (2010). Plant list for Lesvos, slightly revised 1998-2009: 1-36. Marengo, Hunstanton, England.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
  • Ibrahim, K.M. & Peterson, P.M. (2014). Grasses of Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 99: 1-128.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Packer, J.G. & Gould, J. (2007). Vascular Plants of alberta 1: 1-281. University of Calgary Press.
  • Pedersen, H.Æ. & Ormerod, P. (2009). Notes on the Orchid flora of Thailand (I) Taiwania 54: 213-218.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. New York Botanical Garden.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0