Genus:
Bromus L.

Bromus secalinus L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Central & S. Europe to NW. Iran, Siberia to N. China. It is used as animal food and for food.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual; culms solitary, or caespitose. Culms erect; 20-120 cm long; 5-7 -noded. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2 mm long; erose. Leaf-blades 10-25 cm long; 4-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open, or contracted; ovate; equilateral, or nodding; 5-20 cm long. Primary panicle branches 2-8 cm long; bearing 1-4 fertile spikelets on each lower branch. Panicle branches scabrous; glabrous, or pubescent. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 10-30 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 4-11 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or ovate; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 12-25 mm long; 4-7 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 4-11 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or ovate; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 12-25 mm long; 4-7 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; parallel to lemmas. Lower glume oblong, or ovate; 4.6-6.5 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic, or ovate; 5-8.5 mm long; 0.7-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic; 6-10 mm long; 4-11 mm wide; coriaceous; much thinner on margins; without keel; 7-9 -veined. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; 0-8 mm long overall; limb scabrous. Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 1-2 mm long. Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion; pubescent on apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; hairy at apex; apex fleshy. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north and Macaronesia. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Caucasus, western Asia, China, and eastern Asia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: south-central and north-central. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: southern South America.
Reference
Bromeae. Acedo 1996.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UPFC]
Distribution
Naturalised in Colombia.
Habit
Herb.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Food
Used for food.

Native to:

Belarus, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, China North-Central, Corse, France, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Krasnoyarsk, Lebanon-Syria, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, Spain, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Algeria, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Belgium, British Columbia, California, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East European Russia, Finland, Florida, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Korea, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Gulf, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Poland, Primorye, Québec, Rhode I., Sakhalin, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon

English
Rye Brome

Bromus secalinus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
s.coll. [s.n.], Great Britain K000913568 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 76 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Ibrahim, K.M. & Peterson, P.M. (2014). Grasses of Washington, D.C.. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 99: 1-128.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2020). Flora of Japan IVa: 1-430. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal'nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Naderi, R. & Rahiminejad, M.R. (2015). A taxonomic revision of the genus Bromus (Poaceae) and a new key to the tribe Bromeae in Iran. Annales Botanici Fennici 52: 233-248.
  • Saarela, J.M., Peterson, P.M. & Váldes-Reyna, J. (2014). A taxonomic revision of Bromus (Poaceae: Pooideae: Bromeae) in México and Central America. Phytotaxa 185(1): 1-147.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae. Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Greuter, W. & von Raab-Straube, E. (eds.) (2012). Euro+Med Notulae, 6. Willdenowia 42: 283-285.
  • Ibrahim, K.M. & Peterson, P.M. (2014). Grasses of Washington, D.C.. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 99: 1-128.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2020). Flora of Japan IVa: 1-430. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal'nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Naderi, R. & Rahiminejad, M.R. (2015). A taxonomic revision of the genus Bromus (Poaceae) and a new key to the tribe Bromeae in Iran. Annales Botanici Fennici 52: 233-248.
  • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
  • Saarela, J.M., Peterson, P.M. & Váldes-Reyna, J. (2014). A taxonomic revision of Bromus (Poaceae: Pooideae: Bromeae) in México and Central America. Phytotaxa 185(1): 1-147.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae. Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0