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This species is accepted, and its native range is Central & S. U.S.A. to Tropical & Subtropical America.
Cenchrus spinifex

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 5-80 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 0.5-1.5 mm long. Leaf-blades 2-18 cm long; 2-6 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 2-8.5 cm long; 0.8-2 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 2-4 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; connate into a cup below (cleft on 2 sides); with 2-7 mm connate; ovate, or globose; 5.5-10.2 mm long; base obconical; base glabrous, or pubescent. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; emerging irregularly from body of a burr; 8-40 in principal whorl; with longest bristle scarcely emergent; 2-5 mm long; flattened; rigid; retrorsely scaberulous; pubescent; spinose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 3.5-5.8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 3.5-5.8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 1-1.3 mm long; 0.33-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume ovate; 2.8-5 mm long; 0.75-0.9 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-7 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 3.4-5.8 mm long; coriaceous; much thinner on margins; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acute. Palea coriaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 0.5-2 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ovoid; dorsally compressed; 1.3-3 mm long.
Distribution
Europe: southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: western Asia and China. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia. North America: northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Paniceae. FZ.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1000 m.; Andes, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FZ]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Annual.
Morphology Culms
Culms 5–80 cm. high, erect or ascending.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle 2–8.5 cm. long; involucre 5.5–10 mm. long, connate for 1/3–2/3 its length to form a cup cleft on 2 sides; inner spines flattened, ± pubescent, retrorsely barbellate, pungent; outer spines triangular, arising irregularly from the surface of the bur.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2–4 per bur, 3.5–6 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Superior lemma thinly coriaceous.
Superior
Superior lemma thinly coriaceous.

Doubtfully present in:

Azores

Native to:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil South, California, Cayman Is., Chile North, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cuba, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Georgia, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Jamaica, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Austria, Azores, Bangladesh, Cape Provinces, Corse, France, Free State, Greece, Italy, KwaZulu-Natal, Libya, Maine, Manchuria, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Palestine, Spain, Ukraine, Vermont, Yugoslavia

Cenchrus spinifex Cav. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mendoza Cenchrus incertus K000643114
Hatschbach, G.G. [61884], Brazil Cenchrus incertus K001075840
Hitchcock, A.S. [22349], Peru Cenchrus incertus K000643115 Unknown type material
Barclay [s.n.], Mexico Cenchrus incertus K000643120
s.coll. [s.n.], USA Cenchrus incertus K001056120 Unknown type material
Smith, L.B. [14107], Brazil Cenchrus incertus K001075841
Irwin, H.S. [7592], Brazil Cenchrus incertus K001075842
Barclay [s.n.], Mexico Cenchrus incertus K000643121

First published in Icon. 5: 38 (1799)

Accepted by

  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Gutiérrez, H.F. & Morrone, O. (2012). Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 47: 263-269.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nobis, M. & al. (2017). Contribution to the flora of Asian and European countries: new national and regional vascular plant records, 6 Botany Letters 164: 23-45.
  • Verloove, F. & Sánchez Gullón, E. (2012). A taxonomic recision of non-native Cenchrus s.str. (Panicae, Poaceae) in the Mediterranean area Willdenowia 42: 67-75.
  • Vladimirov, V., Aybeke, N. & Kit Tan (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 32 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 119-146.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. New York Botanical Garden.

Not accepted by

  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Cenchrus echinatus.]

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Nobis, M. & al. (2017). Contribution to the flora of Asian and European countries: new national and regional vascular plant records, 6 Botany Letters 164: 23-45.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • USDA, NRCS (2005- continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Verloove, F. & Sánchez Gullón, E. (2012). A taxonomic recision of non-native Cenchrus s.str. (Panicae, Poaceae) in the Mediterranean area Willdenowia 42: 67-75.
  • Vladimirov, V., Aybeke, N. & Kit Tan (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 32 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 119-146.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. New York Botanical Garden.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/