Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Indo-China to Malesia.
Chrysopogon zizanioides

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2000 m.; Andes, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Perennial up to 200 cm high or more; culms erect, the nodes all concealed within the leaf sheaths; ligule a scarious rim; leaf laminas up to 90 cm × 4–20 mm, linear.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle up to 30 cm long or more, oblong, contracted; main axis smooth and glabrous; whorls 6–10 each with up to 20 racemes; racemes very slender; rhachis internodes as long as or slightly longer than the spikelets, glabrous; pedicels shorter than the sessile spikelets, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet linear-lanceolate, variable in colour (yellowish, olive, violet-brown, purplish); callus up to 1 mm long, obtuse, glabrous; inferior glume muricate on the back; superior glume spinulose on the keel; inferior lemma as long as the glumes, acute, retrorsely ciliate; superior floret bisexual, the lemma up to 3 mm long, narrow, oblong-lanceolate, mucronate, glabrous; anthers 2–3 mm long. Pedicelled spikelet sparingly aculeolate or almost smooth, male; inferior lemma as for the sessile spikelet; superior lemma acute, entire; anthers c. 2.5 mm long.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet linear-lanceolate, variable in colour (yellowish, olive, violet-brown, purplish); callus up to 1 mm long, obtuse, glabrous; inferior glume muricate on the back; superior glume spinulose on the keel; inferior lemma as long as the glumes, acute, retrorsely ciliate; superior floret bisexual, the lemma up to 3 mm long, narrow, oblong-lanceolate, mucronate, glabrous; anthers 2–3 mm long.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet sparingly aculeolate or almost smooth, male; inferior lemma as for the sessile spikelet; superior lemma acute, entire; anthers c. 2.5 mm long.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Roots aromatic. Rhizomes short. Basal innovations intravaginal; flabellate. Culms erect; 150-300 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 30-100 cm long; 4-10 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open; lanceolate; 15-40 cm long. Primary panicle branches whorled at most nodes; simple. Racemes 4-8 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Rhachis internodes filiform. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Raceme-bases filiform; glabrous. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform.
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; linear; dorsally compressed; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; smooth, or scaberulous; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 3.5-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square; glabrous; base obtuse; inserted. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; linear; dorsally compressed; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; smooth, or scaberulous; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 3.5-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square; glabrous; base obtuse; inserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; without keels; 5 -veined. Lower glume surface spinose; rough generally, or on flanks. Upper glume lanceolate; chartaceous; 1-keeled. Upper glume primary vein spinulose. Upper glume muticous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 1 length of spikelet; hyaline; 2 -veined; ciliolate on margins. Fertile lemma oblong; 2-3 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined. Lemma apex entire; muticous. Palea 0.3-0.5 length of lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined; without keels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 2-3 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
Distribution
Africa: north, west tropical, west-central tropical, southern tropical, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, and northwestern. North America: southeast USA and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Andropogoneae. FTA.

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Note
Cultivated for its aromatic roots, and sometimes maintained as an ornamental.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Borneo, Cambodia, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Brazil Northeast, Cameroon, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Kazan-retto, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malaya, Mauritius, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Niue, Pakistan, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Merill, E.D. [355], Philippines K001050464
Oct 1, 1956 s.coll. [8759] Vetiveria zizanioides K001050442
Oct 1, 1929 Koenig, J.G. [s.n.], India Vetiveria zizanioides K001050443 Unknown type material
Feb 28, 1929 Wight, R. [8759], India Vetiveria zizanioides K001050439
Santos, T.S. [3616], Bahia Vetiveria zizanioides K000004741
Put [2576], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620457
Lakshmahara, C. [245], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620463
Lakshmahara, C. [245], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620465
Lakshmahara, C. [245], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620466
Kerr, A.F.G. [9161], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620468
Kerr, A.F.G. [9336], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620473
Kerr, A.F.G. [13496], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620479
Put [4103], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620480
Larsen, K. [1113], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688638
Smitinand, T. [6078], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688640
Lakshmahara, C. [245], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620464
Kerr, A.F.G. [19636], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620477
Robertson, S.A. [7643], Kenya Vetiveria zizanioides K000823783
Kerr, A.F.G. [19580], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620471
Merill, E.D. [355], Philippines Vetiveria zizanioides K001050464
Glaziou, A. [14390], Brazil Vetiveria zizanioides K001106139
Kerr, A.F.G. [13496], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620478
Put [2576], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620458
Lakshmahara, C. [245], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620470
Kerr, A.F.G. [8021], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620472
Glaziou, A. [6953], Brazil Vetiveria zizanioides K001106138
Lazarides, M. [7452], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688637
Kerr, A.F.G. [17571], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620474
Kerr, A.F.G. [8464], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620461
Kerr, A.F.G. [2007], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620459
Put [4104], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620481
Wight, R. [1677] Vetiveria zizanioides K001050440
Smitinand, T. [6078], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688639
Marcan, A. [2280], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620469
Kerr, A.F.G. [19636], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620475
Sorensen, Th. [5768], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688636
Kerr, A.F.G. [2007], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620460
Kerr, A.F.G. [19580], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620467
Smitinand, T. [5932], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688641
Kerr, A.F.G. [19636], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620476
Glaziou, A. [6953], Brazil Vetiveria zizanioides K001106136
Archer, W.A. [8445], Brazil Vetiveria zizanioides K001106137
Kerr, A.F.G. [8464], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620462
Smitinand, T. [5044], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688642
s.coll. [8759] Vetiveria zizanioides K001050441
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131513
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759], India Anatherum muricatum K001131514
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131522
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131524
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131519
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131528
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759], Nepal Anatherum muricatum K001131520
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131518
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759], Nepal Anatherum muricatum K001131521
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131512
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131526
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759], India Anatherum muricatum K001131515
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131525
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131516
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131510
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131517
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131511
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131527
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131523

First published in Bull. Inst. Fondam. Afrique Noire, Sér. A, Sci. Nat. 22: 106 (1960)

Accepted by

  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Vigosa-Mercado, J.L. & Fonseca, R.M. (2017). Flora de Guerrero 75: 1-153. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Vigosa-Mercado, J.L. & Fonseca, R.M. (2017). Flora de Guerrero 75: 1-153. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
  • Voeltzkow, A. (1917). Flora und Fauna der Comoren: 428-480.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Cordemoy, E.J. (1895). Flore de l'ile de la Réunion: 1-574. Librairie des sciences naturelles Paul Klincksieck, Paris.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001050464

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/