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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Arabian Peninsula to Indian Subcontinent.
Cymbopogon caesius (Hook. & Arn.) Stapf

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Caespitose perennial; culms up to 200(300) cm high.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves smooth, sometimes purplish; ligule 0.5–2(3) mm long, minutely dentate; laminas 9–37 cm × 7–28 mm wide, amplexicaul, cordate or rounded at the base, broader below and tapering to a very fine point at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence elongated and ± interrupted, 7.5–70 cm long, reddish. Racemes 11–20 mm long; internodes and pedicels pilose with silvery-white hairs, the lowermost swollen and fused together.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet 3–5.5 mm long, glabrous; inferior glume with a V-shaped median groove, winged on the keels in the upper 1/2–1/3, entire or dentate at the apex; superior lemma linear, bifid to about the middle; awn delicate, 7–19.5 mm long, with a distinct column; anthers 1.4–2.6(3) mm long, straw-coloured.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet male, 3–4 mm long, longer than the sessile spikelet, glabrous. Sessile spikelet 3–5.5 mm long, glabrous; inferior glume with a V-shaped median groove, winged on the keels in the upper 1/2–1/3, entire or dentate at the apex; superior lemma linear, bifid to about the middle; awn delicate, 7–19.5 mm long, with a distinct column; anthers 1.4–2.6(3) mm long, straw-coloured.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet male, 3–4 mm long, longer than the sessile spikelet, glabrous.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Tufted perennial, the basal sheaths soon falling away; culms wiry, 30–120 cm. high, arising from a dense leafy tussock or rambling from a knotty rootstock, without stilt roots.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear, 5–30 cm. long, 1.5–8(–10) mm. wide, smooth, glaucous, hard, the base attenuate to rounded; ligule membranous, 1–4 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
False panicle linear to oblong, 5–20(–30) cm. long; racemes 10–15 mm. long, the lowermost internode and pedicel connate and swollen.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 3–4.5 mm. long; lower glume firmly membranous, narrowly winged, shallowly concave on the back with a V-shaped median groove towards the base, without oil streaks and intercarinal nerves or these obscure and confined to the tip; upper lemma bifid to the middle, the awn 6–15 mm. long with a distinct column.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 3–5 mm. long, with clear closely spaced nerves. Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 3–4.5 mm. long; lower glume firmly membranous, narrowly winged, shallowly concave on the back with a V-shaped median groove towards the base, without oil streaks and intercarinal nerves or these obscure and confined to the tip; upper lemma bifid to the middle, the awn 6–15 mm. long with a distinct column.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 3–5 mm. long, with clear closely spaced nerves.
Figures
Fig. 179.
Habitat
Wooded grassland, deciduous bushland and open grassland, the soil varying from stony hillsides to black clay plains; 0–2300 m.
Distribution
K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T5 T7 U1 U2 eastern Africa from the Sudan and Yemen to South Africa

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tufted wiry perennial up to 120 cm high
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule membranous, 1–4 mm long
Morphology Leaves
Leaves rounded at the base, up to 8(–10) mm wide, glaucous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
False panicle linear to oblong, 5–20(–30) cm long; racemes 10–15 mm long, the lowermost internode and pedicel connate and swollen
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 3–5 mm long, with clear closely spaced nerves. Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 3–4.5 mm long; lower glume firmly membranous, narrowly to broadly winged, shallowly concave on the back and with a V-shaped groove in the lower 1/3–1/2, without intercarinal nerves (or these obscure and confined to the tip) or oil-streaks; awn of upper lemma 6–15 mm long, with distinct column
Distribution
N1; S3 Sudan and Arabia (Yemen) through eastern Africa to South Africa; India & Sri Lanka
Vernacular
Sandul (Somali).

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose; clumped moderately, or densely. Rootstock not evident, or evident. Butt sheaths withering. Basal innovations extravaginal. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending, or rambling; 30-120 cm long; without nodal roots. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-4 mm long; membranous. Leaf-blade base simple. Leaf-blades linear; 5-30 cm long; 1.5-8(-10) mm wide; coriaceous; glaucous; aromatic. Leaf-blade surface smooth. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Synflorescence compound; linear, or paniculate; 5-20(-30) cm long; dense, or lax. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Spatheole lanceolate; 1-2 cm long; herbaceous. Racemes 2; paired; deflexed; 1-1.5 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; semiterete; ciliate on margins. Rhachis hairs 0.5-1 mm long. Rhachis internodes linear; 2.5-3 mm long. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Raceme-bases flattened; subequal; 0.5-1.5 mm long; pubescent, or pilose. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear; semiterete; ciliate.
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels fused to internode in lower raceme; swollen in lower raceme. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 3-5 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; distinctly veined; 7 -veined; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 3-4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels fused to internode in lower raceme; swollen in lower raceme. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 3-5 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; distinctly veined; 7 -veined; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 3-4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without oil streaks (or obscure); 2-keeled; keeled laterally; winged on keel; winged narrowly. Lower glume intercarinal veins absent, or obscure. Lower glume surface with V-shaped depression. Lower glume apex emarginate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-keeled; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliate. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear; 2-4 mm long; hyaline. Fertile lemma linear, or lanceolate; 3 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; incised 0.5 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 6-15 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 1.5 mm long.
Distribution
Africa: west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Asia-tropical: India and Indo-China.
Reference
Andropogoneae. FTEA 1997.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Comoros, Ethiopia, Free State, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Rwanda, Réunion, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Cuba, Laos, Vietnam

English
Broad-leaved turpentine grass, Common turpentine grass, Ginger grass, Lemon grass

Cymbopogon caesius (Hook. & Arn.) Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Dec 10, 1933 Griffith, W. [104], India K000974900
Jun 10, 1933 Wight, R. [1700], India K000245856 holotype
Jun 10, 1933 Wight, R. [1700], India K000245857 isotype
Jun 10, 1933 Wight, R. [8796], India K000245858 Unknown type material
Jun 10, 1933 Wight, R. [1700], India K000974903 Unknown type material
Jun 10, 1933 Wight, R. [1700], India K000974902 Unknown type material
Jun 10, 1933 Wight, R. [1700], India K000974901 Unknown type material
Krauss [26], South Africa K000280439 isotype
Smith, C.A. [4006], South Africa K000280483
Schimper [411] K000280506 isosyntype
Parker, G.W. [s.n.], Madagascar K000244583
Hildebrandt, J.M. [3526], Madagascar K000244584
Madagascar K000244582

First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1906: 341 (1906)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Voeltzkow, A. (1917). Flora und Fauna der Comoren: 428-480.
  • de Cordemoy, E.J. (1895). Flore de l'ile de la Réunion: 1-574. Librairie des sciences naturelles Paul Klincksieck, Paris.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Chiov., Fl. Somala 1: 329 (1929).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 423 (1956).
  • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 1: 147 (1929).
  • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 59 (1955).
  • Stapf in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1906: 360 (1906)
  • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 287 (1919).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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Plants and People Africa
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