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This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Central & S. Tropical Africa to Tanzania.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Tufted perennial, the basal sheaths soon falling away; culms stout, 1–2 m. high.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades broadly linear to narrowly lanceolate, 25–45 cm. long, 8–30 mm. wide, smooth, rounded to cordate at the base; ligule 1–2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
False panicle globose to obovate, 6–20 cm. long, very dense; racemes 8–15 mm. long, the lowermost internode and pedicel connate in their lower half but not swollen.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 3–4 mm. long; lower glume membranous, narrowly winged, flat on the back with a shallow median groove towards the base, without oil streaks and intercarinal nerves or these obscure and confined to the tip; upper lemma entire, the awn 3.5–8 mm. long, fine, without a column. Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 2–3 mm. long, with clear closely spaced nerves.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 3–4 mm. long; lower glume membranous, narrowly winged, flat on the back with a shallow median groove towards the base, without oil streaks and intercarinal nerves or these obscure and confined to the tip; upper lemma entire, the awn 3.5–8 mm. long, fine, without a column.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 2–3 mm. long, with clear closely spaced nerves.
Habitat
Open places along roads or drainage lines in wooded grassland; 800–1100 m.
Distribution
T4 T7 T8 Gabon and Zaire to Angola and Zimbabwe, introduced to Brazil

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Robust, caespitose perennial; culms up to 220 cm high.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves smooth; ligule 2.5–3.5 mm long, erose; laminas 30–40 cm × 8–35 mm, tapering to a fine point at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a dense subovoid to globose head 5–19(30) cm long, greenish. Racemes 10–14 mm long; internodes and pedicels pilose with silvery-white hairs.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet 3–4 mm long, glabrous; inferior glume with an often shallow V-shaped median groove, narrowly winged on the keels; superior lemma inconspicuous, entire; awn delicate, 3.5–5 mm long, without a column; anthers 1–1.5 mm long, purple.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet male, 2–3 mm long, awnless. Sessile spikelet 3–4 mm long, glabrous; inferior glume with an often shallow V-shaped median groove, narrowly winged on the keels; superior lemma inconspicuous, entire; awn delicate, 3.5–5 mm long, without a column; anthers 1–1.5 mm long, purple.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet male, 2–3 mm long, awnless.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths withering. Culms robust; 100-200 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2 mm long. Leaf-blade base broadly rounded, or cordate. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 25-45 cm long; 8-30 mm wide; aromatic. Leaf-blade surface smooth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Synflorescence compound; paniculate (to obovate); 6-20 cm long; dense. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Racemes 2; paired; deflexed; 0.8-1.5 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; semiterete; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes linear. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Raceme-bases flattened; subequal. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear; semiterete; ciliate.
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels fused to internode in lower raceme; swollen in lower raceme. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 2-3 mm long; shorter than fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; distinctly veined; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 3-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels fused to internode in lower raceme; swollen in lower raceme. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 2-3 mm long; shorter than fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; distinctly veined; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 3-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without oil streaks; 2-keeled; keeled laterally; winged on keel; winged narrowly. Lower glume intercarinal veins absent. Lower glume surface with V-shaped depression. Lower glume apex emarginate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-keeled. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret hyaline. Fertile lemma lanceolate; hyaline; without keel. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; straight; 3.5-8 mm long overall; without a column. Palea absent or minute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Distribution
Africa: west-central tropical, east tropical, and southern tropical. South America: Brazil.
Reference
Andropogoneae. FTEA.

Native to:

Angola, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central

Cymbopogon densiflorus (Steud.) Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Apr 1, 2014 Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001068529
Apr 1, 2014 Davidse, G. [12147], Brazil K001068523
Mar 1, 2014 Plowman, T.C. [9998], Brazil K001068535
Jan 1, 1975 Castellanos, A. [23159], Brazil K001068527
Jan 1, 1975 Irwin, H.S. [12892], Brazil K001068532
Jan 1, 1975 Mexia, Y.E.J. [5012], Brazil K001068530
Jan 1, 1975 Clayton, W.D. [4827], Brazil K001068528
Davidse, G. [12147], Bahia K000004681
Carvalho, A.M. [2989], Bahia K000004682
Bautista, H.P. [831], Bahia K000004683
Welwitsch, Angola K000280446
Welwitsch [7526], Angola K000280445 isotype
Silva, L.A.M. [2195], Brazil K001068522
Lindeman, J.C. [6301], Brazil K001068525
Souza, J. [s.n.], Brazil K001068533
Lindeman, J.C. [6301], Brazil K001068524
Eiten, G. [9372], Brazil K001068531
Hatschbach, G.G. [51791], Brazil K001068526
Oldenburger, F.H.F. [1602], Brazil K001068534

First published in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 289 (1919)

Accepted by

  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 105 (1965).
  • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 33 (1958).
  • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 1: 148 (1929).
  • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 289 (1919).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0