Genus:
Cynodon Rich.

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical Old World to Australia. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and social uses and for food.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–3000 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlántico, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Guainía, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés, Vichada.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Grama, Pasto bermuda

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; mat forming. Rhizomes elongated. Stolons present. Culms geniculately ascending; 8-40 cm long; 0.5-1 mm diam. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; 0.2-0.3 mm long. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 1-12 cm long; 2-4 mm wide; glaucous. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 4-6; digitate; unilateral; 1.5-6(-8) cm long. Rhachis flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 2-2.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 2-2.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of upper glume; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.5-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma ovate; laterally compressed; 2-2.5 mm long; cartilaginous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein pubescent. Lemma apex acute. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels eciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; laterally compressed.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
Reference
Cynodonteae. FTEA.

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

Morphology General Habit
Stoloniferous sward-forming perennial with slender underground rhizomes; surface stolons slender; culms slender, up to 40 cm tall, erect or ascending; leaf laminas 2.5–12 cm × 1–2(3) mm, flat, or folded when dry, often short and narrow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes usually 2–4(6) in a single whorl, 2–5.5 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2–2.6 mm long; glumes lanceolate in profile, the superior 1/2–3/4 as long as the spikelet; lemma silky-pubescent on the keel, sometimes thinly so.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Stoloniferous sward-forming perennial with slender underground rhizomes; surface stolons slender, prostrate; culms slender, 8–40 cm. high, 0.5–1 mm. in diameter.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades flat, or folded when dry, often short and narrow, 1–12 cm. long, 2–4 mm. wide, glaucous, scaberulous, with or without scattered hairs; ligule a membranous rim 0.2–0.3 mm. long, ciliate on the edge.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes usually 4–6, 1.5–6(–8) cm. long, in a single whorl.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2–2.5 mm. long; glumes lanceolate in side view, 1-nerved, the upper 1/2–3/4 as long as the spikelet; lemma silky pubescent on the keel; palea glabrous.
Habitat
Roadsides, old farmland, and weedy or trodden places around habitations; used as a lawn grass throughout East Africa; sea-level to 2000 m.
Distribution
tropical and warm temperate regions throughout the world K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
argentina, barrenillo, bermuda, crítica, cruceta, grama, grama de gallina, grama dulce, gramilla brava, gramilla colorada, paja de la Virgen, pasto argentina, pasto argentino, pasto bermuda, pasto de gallina, pata de perdiz, pelo de vieja, tejedora, yerba argentina

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Stoloniferous sward-forming perennial with slender rhizomes; stems slender, up to 40 cm high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes (2–)3–6, digitate, 1.5–6 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes shorter than the floret; lemma 2–3 mm long, subglabrous to silky-pubescent on the keel.
Distribution
N1–3; C1; S2 tropical and warm temperate regions, the most widespread of tropical lawn-grasses.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–1750 m.
Vernacular
Darris, domar, harfo, hrari, rys, sadeho, serdi (Somali).

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Stems creeping, rooting at the nodes and producing from them fascicles of barren shoots and flowering culms; 7–40 cm. high.
Morphology General Height
A common grass in lawns and on paths, and often a pest in agricultural land. Very variable in vegetative, and to a lesser extent spikelet, characters throughout its range, although specimens from a limited area are usually fairly constant.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 3000 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Least concern.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

[UPB]
Use Animal Food Grains & Cereals
Eaten by animals (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Portugal, Queensland, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Bahamas, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chile North, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Howland-Baker Is., Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nauru, Nebraska, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Samoa, Society Is., South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, St.Helena, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is.

English
Bermuda Grass, Bermuda grass, Common quick grass, Couch grass, Quick Grass
Spanish
Pasto bermuda, grama.

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 1973 Prance, G.T. [5465], Brazil K001075186 Yes
Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [4895], Brazil K000003303 Yes
Nov 22, 1933 Koenig [161], India K000245248 Yes
Nov 22, 1933 Hohenacker, R.F. [927], India K000245249 Yes
Luetzelburg [26724], Brazil K000003302 Yes
Luetzelburg [28020], Brazil K000003301 Yes
Bolland, G. [0], Brazil K000003299 No
Noblick, L.R. [1863], Bahia K000003297 No
Glocker [211], Bahia K000003295 Yes
Preston, T.A. [0], Pernambuco K000003300 Yes
Santos, T.S. [3681], Bahia K000003298 No
Hage, J.L. [1454], Bahia K000003296 No
Grupo Pedra do Cavalo [272], Bahia K000003294 No
Thwaites, G.H.K [312], Sri Lanka K000245250 Yes
Boisium [s.n.], Madagascar K000365057 Unknown type material Yes
Drege [s.n], Cape Province K000365166 Unknown type material Yes
Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365167 Unknown type material Yes
Drege [s.n], Cape Province K000365169 Unknown type material Yes
Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365168 Unknown type material Yes
Schimper, W. [311], Egypt K000244748 Yes
Schimper, W. [311], Egypt K000244749 Yes
[Heredis, S.] [s.n.], Argentina K000309007 Unknown type material Yes
Kerr, A.F.G. [3714], Thailand K000621603 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [944], Thailand K000621605 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [12947], Thailand K000621607 No
Heckman, C.W. [111], Thailand K000682678 No
Geesink, R. [7138], Thailand K000682683 No
Collins, D.J. [1894], Thailand K000682685 No
Hinton, G.B. [9833], Guerrero K000465962 No
Hinton, G.B. [3745], México State K000465963 No
Henry, A. [470], China K000885739 Yes
Dallachy, J. [s.n.], Australia K000885874 Unknown type material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803] K001117241 Yes
Castellanos, A. [24855], Brazil K001075176 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] K001075182 Yes
Skvortzov, B. [285], Brazil K001075187 Yes
Kerr, A.F.G. [845], Thailand K000621604 No
Hinton, G.B. [5194], México State K000465958 No
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3803], Myanmar K001117244 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [5456], Guerrero K000465961 No
Geesink, R. [7137], Thailand K000682682 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [12947], Thailand K000621606 No
Spruce [682], Brazil K001075181 Yes
Larsen, K. [9210], Thailand K000682684 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [19120], Thailand K000621608 No
Niyomdham [1536], Thailand K000682676 No
Larsen, K. [250], Thailand K000682681 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [20444], Thailand K000621609 No
Burchell [983], Brazil K001075183 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803], India K001117246 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [5760], México State K000465959 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [21410], Thailand K000621610 No
Smitinand, T. [1608], Thailand K000682680 No
Koenig [s.n.], India K000885738 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [3624], México State K000465964 No
Hinton, G.B. [1625], México State K000465957 No
Heckman, C.W. [134], Thailand K000682679 No
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000201677 Yes
Clayton, W.D. [4369], Brazil K001075177 Yes
Becker, A.K. [s.n.] K000885717 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803] K001117245 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3803], Myanmar K001117243 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3803], India K001117242 Yes
s.coll. [926] K000885740 Yes
Schrenk, A.G. [s.n.] K000885719 Yes
Cope, T.A. [RBG 196], United Kingdom K000914557 Yes
Linden [1814], Cuba K001075175 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [5667], Guerrero K000465960 No
Traill, J.W.H. [1268], Brazil K001075180 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803] K001117248 Yes
Lazarides, M. [7436], Thailand K000682677 No
Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K001075184 Yes
Hatschbach, G. [15193], Brazil K001075179 Yes
Glaziou, A. [13339], Brazil K001075178 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803], India K001117247 Yes
Ascherson, P. [2443] K000885718 Yes
Burchell [1027], Brazil K001075185 Yes

First published in Syn. Pl. 1: 85 (1805)

Accepted by

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  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
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  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Plants and People Africa

    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/