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This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical Old World to Australia. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders and as animal food and a medicine.
Cynodon dactylon

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; mat forming. Rhizomes elongated. Stolons present. Culms geniculately ascending; 8-40 cm long; 0.5-1 mm diam. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; 0.2-0.3 mm long. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 1-12 cm long; 2-4 mm wide; glaucous. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 4-6; digitate; unilateral; 1.5-6(-8) cm long. Rhachis flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 2-2.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 2-2.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of upper glume; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.5-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma ovate; laterally compressed; 2-2.5 mm long; cartilaginous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein pubescent. Lemma apex acute. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels eciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; laterally compressed.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
Reference
Cynodonteae. FTEA.

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

Morphology General Habit
Stoloniferous sward-forming perennial with slender underground rhizomes; surface stolons slender; culms slender, up to 40 cm tall, erect or ascending; leaf laminas 2.5–12 cm × 1–2(3) mm, flat, or folded when dry, often short and narrow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes usually 2–4(6) in a single whorl, 2–5.5 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2–2.6 mm long; glumes lanceolate in profile, the superior 1/2–3/4 as long as the spikelet; lemma silky-pubescent on the keel, sometimes thinly so.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Stoloniferous sward-forming perennial with slender underground rhizomes; surface stolons slender, prostrate; culms slender, 8–40 cm. high, 0.5–1 mm. in diameter.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades flat, or folded when dry, often short and narrow, 1–12 cm. long, 2–4 mm. wide, glaucous, scaberulous, with or without scattered hairs; ligule a membranous rim 0.2–0.3 mm. long, ciliate on the edge.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes usually 4–6, 1.5–6(–8) cm. long, in a single whorl.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2–2.5 mm. long; glumes lanceolate in side view, 1-nerved, the upper 1/2–3/4 as long as the spikelet; lemma silky pubescent on the keel; palea glabrous.
Habitat
Roadsides, old farmland, and weedy or trodden places around habitations; used as a lawn grass throughout East Africa; sea-level to 2000 m.
Distribution
tropical and warm temperate regions throughout the world K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Grama, Pasto bermuda

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Stoloniferous sward-forming perennial with slender rhizomes; stems slender, up to 40 cm high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes (2–)3–6, digitate, 1.5–6 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes shorter than the floret; lemma 2–3 mm long, subglabrous to silky-pubescent on the keel.
Distribution
N1–3; C1; S2 tropical and warm temperate regions, the most widespread of tropical lawn-grasses.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–1750 m.
Vernacular
Darris, domar, harfo, hrari, rys, sadeho, serdi (Somali).

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Stems creeping, rooting at the nodes and producing from them fascicles of barren shoots and flowering culms; 7–40 cm. high.
Morphology General Height
A common grass in lawns and on paths, and often a pest in agricultural land. Very variable in vegetative, and to a lesser extent spikelet, characters throughout its range, although specimens from a limited area are usually fairly constant.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 3000 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Least concern.

[UPB]
Use Animal Food Grains & Cereals
Eaten by animals (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Portugal, Queensland, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Bahamas, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chile North, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Howland-Baker Is., Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nauru, Nebraska, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Samoa, Society Is., South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, St.Helena, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is.

English
Bermuda grass, Common quick grass, Couch grass, Quick Grass
Spanish
Pasto bermuda, grama.

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1973 Prance, G.T. [5465], Brazil K001075186
Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [4895], Brazil K000003303
Nov 22, 1933 Koenig [161], India K000245248
Nov 22, 1933 Hohenacker, R.F. [927], India K000245249
Luetzelburg [26724], Brazil K000003302
Luetzelburg [28020], Brazil K000003301
Bolland, G. [0], Brazil K000003299
Noblick, L.R. [1863], Bahia K000003297
Glocker [211], Bahia K000003295
Preston, T.A. [0], Pernambuco K000003300
Santos, T.S. [3681], Bahia K000003298
Hage, J.L. [1454], Bahia K000003296
Grupo Pedra do Cavalo [272], Bahia K000003294
Thwaites, G.H.K [312], Sri Lanka K000245250
Boisium [s.n.], Madagascar K000365057 Unknown type material
Drege [s.n], Cape Province K000365166 Unknown type material
Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365167 Unknown type material
Drege [s.n], Cape Province K000365169 Unknown type material
Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365168 Unknown type material
Schimper, W. [311], Egypt K000244748
Schimper, W. [311], Egypt K000244749
[Heredis, S.] [s.n.], Argentina K000309007 Unknown type material
Kerr, A.F.G. [3714], Thailand K000621603
Kerr, A.F.G. [944], Thailand K000621605
Kerr, A.F.G. [12947], Thailand K000621607
Heckman, C.W. [111], Thailand K000682678
Geesink, R. [7138], Thailand K000682683
Collins, D.J. [1894], Thailand K000682685
Hinton, G.B. [9833], Guerrero K000465962
Hinton, G.B. [3745], México State K000465963
Henry, A. [470], China K000885739
Dallachy, J. [s.n.], Australia K000885874 Unknown type material
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803] K001117241
Castellanos, A. [24855], Brazil K001075176
s.coll. [s.n.] K001075182
Skvortzov, B. [285], Brazil K001075187
Kerr, A.F.G. [845], Thailand K000621604
Hinton, G.B. [5194], México State K000465958
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3803], Myanmar K001117244
Hinton, G.B. [5456], Guerrero K000465961
Geesink, R. [7137], Thailand K000682682
Kerr, A.F.G. [12947], Thailand K000621606
Spruce [682], Brazil K001075181
Larsen, K. [9210], Thailand K000682684
Kerr, A.F.G. [19120], Thailand K000621608
Niyomdham [1536], Thailand K000682676
Larsen, K. [250], Thailand K000682681
Kerr, A.F.G. [20444], Thailand K000621609
Burchell [983], Brazil K001075183
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803], India K001117246
Hinton, G.B. [5760], México State K000465959
Kerr, A.F.G. [21410], Thailand K000621610
Smitinand, T. [1608], Thailand K000682680
Koenig [s.n.], India K000885738
Hinton, G.B. [3624], México State K000465964
Hinton, G.B. [1625], México State K000465957
Heckman, C.W. [134], Thailand K000682679
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000201677
Clayton, W.D. [4369], Brazil K001075177
Becker, A.K. [s.n.] K000885717
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803] K001117245
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3803], Myanmar K001117243
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3803], India K001117242
s.coll. [926] K000885740
Schrenk, A.G. [s.n.] K000885719
Cope, T.A. [RBG 196], United Kingdom K000914557
Linden [1814], Cuba K001075175
Hinton, G.B. [5667], Guerrero K000465960
Traill, J.W.H. [1268], Brazil K001075180
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803] K001117248
Lazarides, M. [7436], Thailand K000682677
Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K001075184
Hatschbach, G. [15193], Brazil K001075179
Glaziou, A. [13339], Brazil K001075178
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803], India K001117247
Ascherson, P. [2443] K000885718
Burchell [1027], Brazil K001075185

First published in Syn. Pl. 1: 85 (1805)

Accepted by

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  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
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  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
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  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

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  • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
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  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
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  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
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Flora of Somalia

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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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Universidad Nacional de Colombia

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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
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