Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

First published in Syn. Pl. 1: 85 (1805)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Temp. & Subtropical Old World to Australia. It is a perennial or rhizomatous geophyte and grows primarily in the subtropical biome. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and social uses and for food.

Descriptions

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–3000 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlántico, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Guainía, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés, Vichada.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Grama, Pasto bermuda
[UPFC]

Morphology General Habit
Perennial; mat forming. Rhizomes elongated. Stolons present. Culms geniculately ascending; 8-40 cm long; 0.5-1 mm diam. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; 0.2-0.3 mm long. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 1-12 cm long; 2-4 mm wide; glaucous. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 4-6; digitate; unilateral; 1.5-6(-8) cm long. Rhachis flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 2-2.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 2-2.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of upper glume; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.5-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma ovate; laterally compressed; 2-2.5 mm long; cartilaginous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein pubescent. Lemma apex acute. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels eciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; laterally compressed.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
Reference
Cynodonteae. FTEA.
[GB]

Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

Morphology General Habit
Stoloniferous sward-forming perennial with slender underground rhizomes; surface stolons slender; culms slender, up to 40 cm tall, erect or ascending; leaf laminas 2.5–12 cm × 1–2(3) mm, flat, or folded when dry, often short and narrow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes usually 2–4(6) in a single whorl, 2–5.5 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2–2.6 mm long; glumes lanceolate in profile, the superior 1/2–3/4 as long as the spikelet; lemma silky-pubescent on the keel, sometimes thinly so.
[FZ]

George R. Proctor (2012). Flora of the Cayman Isands (Second Edition). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Vernacular
Bahama grass, Bermuda grass
Morphology General Habit
Stoloniferous perennial with wiry underground creeping rhizomes
Morphology Culms
Flowering culms erect, usually 10–30 cm tall; leaf-blades 2–5 cm long or more, 1.5–2.5 mm broad, glabrous or finely pubescent; ligule in some strains with a double row of hairs, one row being shorter than the other, other strains with only a single line of hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of 3–5 spikes digitate at the apex of the culm; spikes 2.5–5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2–2.5 mm long.
Distribution
Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac. Widespread in the warmer parts of both hemispheres.
Ecology
Commonly used for lawns and pastures throughout the West Indies; it especially thrives in sandy soils.
[Cayman]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Stoloniferous sward-forming perennial with slender underground rhizomes; surface stolons slender, prostrate; culms slender, 8–40 cm. high, 0.5–1 mm. in diameter.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades flat, or folded when dry, often short and narrow, 1–12 cm. long, 2–4 mm. wide, glaucous, scaberulous, with or without scattered hairs; ligule a membranous rim 0.2–0.3 mm. long, ciliate on the edge.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes usually 4–6, 1.5–6(–8) cm. long, in a single whorl.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2–2.5 mm. long; glumes lanceolate in side view, 1-nerved, the upper 1/2–3/4 as long as the spikelet; lemma silky pubescent on the keel; palea glabrous.
Habitat
Roadsides, old farmland, and weedy or trodden places around habitations; used as a lawn grass throughout East Africa; sea-level to 2000 m.
Distribution
tropical and warm temperate regions throughout the world K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1
[FTEA]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
argentina, barrenillo, bermuda, crítica, cruceta, grama, grama de gallina, grama dulce, gramilla brava, gramilla colorada, paja de la Virgen, pasto argentina, pasto argentino, pasto bermuda, pasto de gallina, pata de perdiz, pelo de vieja, tejedora, yerba argentina
[UNAL]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
Preocupación Menor
[CPLC]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Stoloniferous sward-forming perennial with slender rhizomes; stems slender, up to 40 cm high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes (2–)3–6, digitate, 1.5–6 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes shorter than the floret; lemma 2–3 mm long, subglabrous to silky-pubescent on the keel.
Distribution
N1–3; C1; S2 tropical and warm temperate regions, the most widespread of tropical lawn-grasses.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–1750 m.
Vernacular
Darris, domar, harfo, hrari, rys, sadeho, serdi (Somali).
[FSOM]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Stems creeping, rooting at the nodes and producing from them fascicles of barren shoots and flowering culms; 7–40 cm. high.
Morphology General Height
A common grass in lawns and on paths, and often a pest in agricultural land. Very variable in vegetative, and to a lesser extent spikelet, characters throughout its range, although specimens from a limited area are usually fairly constant.
[FWTA]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 3000 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Least concern.
[UPB]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/173150378/173150397

Conservation
EN - endangered
[IUCN]

Uses

Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.
[UPFC]

Use Animal Food Grains & Cereals
Eaten by animals (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).
[UPB]

Common Names

English
Bermuda Grass, Bermuda grass, Common quick grass, Couch grass, Quick Grass
Spanish
Pasto bermuda, grama.

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of the Cayman Islands

    • Flora of the Cayman Islands
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    • Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Plants and People Africa

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    • © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/