Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World. It is used as animal food and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean, Orinoquia. Elevation range: 0–1500 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Arauca, Atlántico, Boyacá, Caldas, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Huila, San Andrés y Providencia, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vichada.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Culms decumbent; 25-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 3-30 cm long; 2-7 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle glabrous. Racemes (1-)2-15; digitate; 3-7 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subterete; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes filiform. Raceme-bases filiform; glabrous. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; without a translucent median line; ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Basal sterile spikelets absent, or well-developed; 0-12 in number (lower raceme); 0-12 in upper raceme; barren, or male; smaller than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lemmas awnless. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; oblong; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes; muticous. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 2-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; attached transversely.
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets absent, or well-developed; 0-12 in number (lower raceme); 0-12 in upper raceme; barren, or male; smaller than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lemmas awnless. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; oblong; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes; muticous.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 2-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; attached transversely.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; cartilaginous; without keels. Lower glume surface concave; pubescent to villous; hairy below; with tubercle-based hairs (on margins & fringe); without hair tufts, or with a transverse fringe of hair. Lower glume margins ciliate. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume margins ciliolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret hyaline; 0 -veined; without midvein; without lateral veins. Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; geniculate; 8-25 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Distribution
Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, and north-central. North America: south-central USA and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, and southern South America.
Reference
Andropogoneae. FTEA.

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Caespitose, decumbent or erect perennial with distinct short rhizomes; culms up to 200 cm high, woody and persistent, robust, geniculately ascending, simple or branched; nodes exposed and densely barbate; internodes glabrous; leaf sheaths glabrous or sparsely pilose; ligule a glabrous membrane c. 2 mm long; leaf laminas up to 30 cm × 4–4.5 mm, linear-lanceolate, glabrous for most of their length but long-pilose near the ligule.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes 2–many, subdigitate, shortly pedunculate, the peduncles glabrous; rhachis internodes and pedicels pilose, sometimes on one side only; the lowermost 1–6 spikelet pairs usually homogamous, male or neuter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelets 2–6 mm long, oblanceolate; inferior glume slightly concave, pubescent below the middle, with long tubercle-based cilia above; superior glume slightly shorter than the inferior, glabrous except for the often shortly ciliate keel and apex; inferior floret barren, the lemma c. 3.8 mm long, ovate, hyaline; superior floret stipitiform, the lemma c. 3 mm long; awn c. 25 mm long, minutely hispidulous on both column and bristle; anthers c. 1.5 mm long. Pedicelled spikelets similar to the sessile spikelets in size and shape, often slightly smaller, male or neuter.
Sessile
Sessile spikelets 2–6 mm long, oblanceolate; inferior glume slightly concave, pubescent below the middle, with long tubercle-based cilia above; superior glume slightly shorter than the inferior, glabrous except for the often shortly ciliate keel and apex; inferior floret barren, the lemma c. 3.8 mm long, ovate, hyaline; superior floret stipitiform, the lemma c. 3 mm long; awn c. 25 mm long, minutely hispidulous on both column and bristle; anthers c. 1.5 mm long.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelets similar to the sessile spikelets in size and shape, often slightly smaller, male or neuter.

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Tufted perennial up to 1 m. high.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 1500 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1500 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tufted perennial with conspicuously bearded nodes, up to 100 cm high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of (1–)2–15 subdigitate, shortly pedunculate racemes; racemes 3–7 cm long, the spikelets subimbricate, with 0–6 smaller homogamous spikelet-pairs at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet as long as the sessile, without a pit. Sessile spikelet narrowly oblong, 2–6 cm long; lower glume firmly cartilaginous, without a pit, slightly concave, pubescent to villous below, with bulbous-based hairs above, obtuse to subacute; upper lemma with an awn 8–25 mm long
Vernacular
Aiyah macareh, aus guran, darer adili, domar, jebin (Somali)

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Perennial; culms 25–100 cm. high, geniculately ascending.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades 3–30 cm. long, 2–7 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of (1–)2–15 subdigitate shortly pedunculate racemes, the peduncles glabrous; racemes 3–7 cm. long, the spikelets subimbricate with 0–6 smaller homogamous pairs at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet narrowly oblong, 2–6 mm. long; lower glume firmly cartilaginous, slightly concave, pubescent to villous below the middle, with long bulbous-based hairs above, obtuse to subacute; awn 8–25 mm. long.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet narrowly oblong, 2–6 mm. long; lower glume firmly cartilaginous, slightly concave, pubescent to villous below the middle, with long bulbous-based hairs above, obtuse to subacute; awn 8–25 mm. long.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
ángleton, climacuna

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

[UPB]
Use Environmental
Environmental uses (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Animal Food Grains & Cereals
Eaten by animals (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Food
Food (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Botswana, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Sudan, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Argentina Northeast, Belize, Canary Is., Chagos Archipelago, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Fiji, Florida, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Kriti, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Marquesas, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niue, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Solomon Is., Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Kunth [s.n.], Egypt K000244657 Yes
Hecknam, C.W. [133], Thailand K000688672 No
Rossetti, C. [197], Mali K000211873 No
Meyers, F.S. [3004], Jordan K000315642 No
Rossetti, C. [153], Mali K000211872 No
Samuelsson, G. [3140], Palestine K000315615 Yes
Townsend, C.C. [418], Jordan K000315617 Yes
Meyers, F.S. [1004], Palestine K000315616 No
Hart, H.C. [s.n.], Jordan K000315620 No
Meyers, F.S. [9004], Lebanon K000315619 No
Al-Eisawi, D. [1139], Jordan K000315613 No
Cope, T.A. [351], Jordan K000315614 No
Townsend, C.C. [418], Jordan K000315618 Yes

First published in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 178 (1917)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Al-Rawi, A. (1987). Flora of Kuwait 2: 1-455. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Greuter, W. & von Raab-Straube, E. (eds.) (2011). Euro+Med Notulae, 5 Willdenowia 41: 128-138.
  • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • Middleton, D.J. & al. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Singapore 7: 1-525. Singapore Botanic Gardens.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Vigosa-Mercado, J.L. & Fonseca, R.M. (2017). Flora de Guerrero 75: 1-153. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) http://apps.kew.org/sepasalweb/sepaweb in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 861
  • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 398.
  • De Miré & Gillet in J. Agric. Trop. 3: 731
  • in F.T.A. 9: 178 (1917)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Greuter, W. & von Raab-Straube, E. (eds.) (2011). Euro+Med Notulae, 5 Willdenowia 41: 128-138.
  • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 57 (1958).
  • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 471 (1972).
  • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 13 (1947).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 429 (1956).
  • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 178 (1917).
  • de Wet & Harlan in Bol. Soc. Arg. Bot. 12: 209 (1968).

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