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This species is accepted, and its native range is Medit. to Central Asia and Malesia.
Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.

[FZ]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

Morphology General Habit
A loosely caespitose or solitary growing annual.
Morphology Culms
Culms 20–60 cm., decumbent or creeping at the base, glabrous, nodes dark and glabrous.
Morphology Leaves Leaf sheaths
Leaf sheaths smooth to scaberulous.
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule 1–2 mm. long, truncate, erose.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf laminae 3–12 × 0.1–0.5 cm., linear, flat, scaberulous on both surfaces, with a few bulbous based bristles on the superior surface, near the base, scaberulous along the margin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of (2)4–8 racemes, (3)6–12 cm. long, erect, (2)3–4(5) in a inferior whorl, sometimes a second, superior whorl of 2–3 racemes.
Morphology Leaves Rachis
Rhachis triquetrous, broadly winged, up to 0.7 mm. wide, smooth to scaberulous with scabrous margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels 2-nate, 0.3–3 mm. long, triangular, scabrous, scarcely widened at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets (1.8)2.1–2.8 mm. long, ovate-oblong.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Superior glume 1/3–2/3 of the spikelet, ovate to oblong triangular, 3-nerved, appressed hairy, hairs fine, smooth, acute. Inferior glume short, triangular, sometimes truncate or even slightly bifid.
Inferior
Inferior lemma as long as the spikelet, ovate-oblong, 7-nerved, nerves scabrous, especially the subcentral and submarginal nerves, central zone often broad, appressed hairy. Inferior glume short, triangular, sometimes truncate or even slightly bifid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Superior lemma as long as to somewhat shorter than the spikelet, oblong-lanceolate, slightly acuminate, pale yellow to pale brown, sometimes purplish tinged. Inferior lemma as long as the spikelet, ovate-oblong, 7-nerved, nerves scabrous, especially the subcentral and submarginal nerves, central zone often broad, appressed hairy.
Superior
Superior lemma as long as to somewhat shorter than the spikelet, oblong-lanceolate, slightly acuminate, pale yellow to pale brown, sometimes purplish tinged. Superior glume 1/3–2/3 of the spikelet, ovate to oblong triangular, 3-nerved, appressed hairy, hairs fine, smooth, acute.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Annual; culms 20–60 cm. high or sometimes more, decumbent at the base, geniculately ascending.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades broadly linear to narrowly lanceolate, 3–30 cm. long, 3–17 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence digitate or subdigitate (rarely with an axis up to 5 cm. long in robust specimens), of 2–16 racemes; racemes stiff, 3–20 cm. long, the spikelets binate and overlapping by about 2/3 of their length on a winged rhachis with triquetrous midrib.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets narrowly elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 2.3–3.5 mm. long, acute; lower glume a little ovate scale 0.2 mm. long; upper glume 1/3–1/2 as long as the spikelet, 3-nerved; lower lemma as long as the spikelet, 7-nerved, the nerves evenly spaced (or occasionally with a wide interspace flanking the midrib) and scaberulous, obscurely and appressedly pubescent, rarely with brownish glassy bristles, very rarely with a ciliate frill; fruit lanceolate, grey or light brown, as long as the lower lemma or almost so.
Habitat
An introduced weed; 1600 m.
Distribution
T4 warm temperate regions throughout the world

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms decumbent, or prostrate; 10-30 cm long; 3-8 -noded; rooting from lower nodes. Culm-nodes glabrous, or bearded. Leaf-sheaths pilose. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2 mm long. Leaf-blades 3-10 cm long; 3-8 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 4-10; digitate; unilateral; 4-18 cm long. Rhachis narrowly winged; angular; scabrous on margins. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; acute; 2.5-3.3 mm long; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; acute; 2.5-3.3 mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.3-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent; hairy between veins. Upper glume apex obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 7 -veined; with equidistant veins; scabrous; rough on veins; puberulous; hairy between veins; acute. Fertile lemma elliptic; 2.5-3.3 mm long; cartilaginous; much thinner on margins; without keel. Lemma margins flat; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute. Palea cartilaginous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 0.6 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Hilum elliptic.
Distribution
Europe: central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
Reference
Paniceae. CEH.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2500 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, France, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Laccadive Is., Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Maldives, Manchuria, Morocco, Nicobar Is., North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South China Sea, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Bahamas, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil South, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Louisiana, Maine, Malawi, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Namibia, Nebraska, Netherlands, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Poland, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Zambia, Zimbabwe

English
Crab finger grass, Crab grass, Crop grass, Land grass

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 1, 2011 s.coll. [s.n.], India K000245364 Unknown type material
Oct 1, 2011 s.coll. [s.n.], India K001056105
s.coll. [s.n.], India K000245366 Unknown type material
s.coll. [s.n.], India K001056106
s.coll. [73], France K000885990
[illegible] [s.n.], Germany K000885991
Duarte, A.P. [5054], Brazil K001102889
Pereira, E. [5371], Brazil K001102890
La Torre, M.I.; Pecho, O. [92], Peru K000326002
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131199
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8681], Nepal Panicum sanguinale K001131207
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131194
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131195
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131202
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681], India Panicum sanguinale K001131197
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8681], Nepal Panicum sanguinale K001131206
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131200
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8681], India Panicum sanguinale K001131198
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131203
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131193
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131204
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131196
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131205
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131201

First published in Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1: 52 (1771)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Damanakis, M. & Scholz, H. (1990). Phytogeographical notes on the Poaceae of Greece Willdenowia 19: 413-423.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Sánchez-Ken, J.G. (2012). A synopsis of Digitaria (Paniceae, Panicoideae, Poaceae) in Mexico, including the new species Digitaria michoacensis Acta Botanica Mexicana 101: 127-149. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vázquez Pardo, F.M., Márquez García, F. & Blanco Salas, J. (2014). 084.- Digitaria ciliaris Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 8: 86-91.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
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  • St. John, H. (1988). Census of the Flora of the Gambier islands, Polynesia Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1-34.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Voeltzkow, A. (1917). Flora und Fauna der Comoren: 428-480.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Scop., Fl. Carn., ed. 2, 1: 52 (1771).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000326002

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/