Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link

First published in Hort. Berol. 2: 209 (1833)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropical & Subtropical Old World. It is an annual and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, France, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Italy, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Korea, Kriti, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Marquesas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nauru, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Sardegna, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Australia, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turks-Caicos Is., Ukraine, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yugoslavia

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Classification

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PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Al-Rawi, A. (1987). Flora of Kuwait 2: 1-455. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae. Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy). Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
  • Damanakis, M. & Scholz, H. (1990). Phytogeographical notes on the Poaceae of Greece. Willdenowia 19: 413-423.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae. Candollea 47: 113-179.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps. Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2. Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia. Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Gosline, G., Bidault, E., van der Burgt, X., Cahen, D., Challen, G., Condé, N., Couch, C., Couvreur, T.L.P., Dagallier, L.M.J., Darbyshire, I., Dawson, S., Doré, T.S., Goyder, D., Grall, A., Haba, P., Haba, P., Harris, D., Hind, D.J.N., Jongkind, & al. (2023). A Taxonomically-verified and Vouchered Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Republic of Guinea. Nature, scientific data 10, Article number: 327: [1]-[12].
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2020). Flora of Japan IVa: 1-430. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand. Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Knapp, W.M. & Naczi, R.F.C. (2021). Vascular plants of Maryland, USA. A comprehensive account of the state's botanical diversity. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 113: 1-151.
  • Kotiya, A., Solanki, Y. & Reddy, G.V. (2020). Flora of Rajasthan: 1-769. Rajasthan state biodiversity board.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Middleton, D.J. & al. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Singapore 7: 1-525. Singapore Botanic Gardens.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi. Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Plunkett, G.M., Ranker, T.A., Sam, C. & Balick, M.J. (2022). Towards a checklist of the vascular flora of Vanuatu. Candollea 77: 105-118.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon. Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • St. John, H. (1988). Census of the Flora of the Gambier islands, Polynesia. Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1-34.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru. Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Whistler, W.A. (2022). Flora of Samoa Flowering Plants: 1-930. National Tropical Botanicl Garden. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae. Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of the Cayman Islands

  • Link, Hort. Bot. Berol. 2: 209 (1833).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Minnesota Flora. An illustrated guide to the vascular plants of Minnesota ed. 2: 1-776. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae. Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy). Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae. Candollea 47: 113-179.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps. Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2. Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia. Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand. Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands. Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
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Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Oct 27, 2008 Crawford, F. [206] Namibia K000450364 Yes
Oct 27, 2008 Crawford, F. [10] Namibia K000450370 Yes
Jun 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9307] Cameroon K000107926 Yes
Jan 1, 1994 Thomas, D.W. [9683] Cameroon K000540021 Yes
Jan 1, 1994 Thomas, D.W. [9691] Cameroon K000540019 Yes
Lobo, S. [1843] Costa Rica K001561355 Yes
Hooker, J.D. [83] Cabo Verde K000282399 Type Yes
Pobéguin, M. [481] Guinea K000386535 Yes
Put [2603] Thailand K000620967 Yes
s.coll. [B 8789] Botswana K001625336 Yes
Smitinand, T. [5406] Thailand K000688011 Yes
Noblick, L.R.; Brito, I.C.; Castro, C.A. [2210] Brazil K000003903 Yes
den Hoed, G.; Kostermans, A. [637] Thailand K000688013 Yes
Leau, O.B. [64] Mali K000386528 Yes
Bona Nascimento, M.S. [1383] Brazil K001102257 Yes
Parry, D.E. [23] Thailand K000688002 Yes
Hagerup, O.; Olufsen, O. [356] Mali K000386534 Yes
Adames, P. [17] Guinea K000386536 Yes
Farrow, R.A. [95] Mali K000386530 Yes
Scholz [63] Burkina Faso K000386538 Yes
Hepper, F.N. [3731] Mali K000386529 Yes
van Beusekom, C.F.; Phengkhlai, C. [1204] Thailand K000682996 Yes
Larsen, K. [8377] Thailand K000688005 Yes
Smitinand, T. [5405] Thailand K000688010 Yes
Ho, B.C. [21-201] Singapore K001528783 Yes
Lobo, S. [1744] Costa Rica K001561367 Yes
Moseley [0] Brazil K000003908 Yes
Scholz [99] Burkina Faso K000386539 Yes
Jan [s.n.] Italy K000958863 Unknown Type Material Yes
Mori, S.A. [11609] Brazil K000003907 Yes
Kerr, A.F.G. [3740] Thailand K000620962 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [5975] Mexico K000476140 Yes
Larsen, K. [10505] Thailand K000682999 Yes
Put [2602] Thailand K000620966 Yes
Hoehne, W. [s.n.] Brazil K001102258 Yes
Gardner [0] Brazil K000003897 Yes
Glaziou [9342] Brazil K001102260 Yes
Laegaard, S. [21747] Thailand K000682994 Yes
Hage, J.L.; dos Santos, E.B. [1573] Brazil K000003905 Yes
Noblick, L.R.; Brito, I.C.; Castro, C.A. [2587] Brazil K000003904 Yes
Kerr, A.F.G. [3800] Thailand K000620963 Yes
Niyomdham, C. [1123] Thailand K000682995 Yes
Sihvonen, J. [165] Burkina Faso K000386543 Yes
Scholz [115] Burkina Faso K000386541 Yes
Wichian [315] Thailand K000688014 Yes
Schimper [1608] Ethiopia K000282407 Type Yes
Scholz [115] Burkina Faso K000386540 Yes
Larsen, K. [9004] Thailand K000682998 Yes
Plowman, T. [12068] Brazil K001102255 Yes
Hage, J.L.; Brito, H.S. [982] Brazil K000003906 Yes
Sangkachan, B. [49] Thailand K000688006 Yes
Dee [67] Thailand K000688012 Yes
Spruce, R. [6425] Ecuador K000201694 Yes
França, F. [2207] Brazil K001102252 Yes
Farrow, R.A. [86] Mali K000386532 Yes
Cuming, H. [1422] Philippines K000290232 Isolectotype Yes
Cuming, H. [1422] Philippines K000290230 Isolectotype Yes
Melo, E. [1760] Brazil K001102251 Yes
Floto, F. [7605] Thailand K000688008 Yes
Chevalier, A. [2117] Mali K000386533 Yes
Gardner [2012] Brazil K000003899 Yes
Loher, A. [1720] Philippines K000290235 Unknown Type Material Yes
Nascimento, M.S.; Renvoize, S.A. [1316] Brazil K001102262 Yes
Scholz [63] Burkina Faso K000386542 No
Smith, E. [791] Thailand K000688015 Yes
Kerr, A.F.G. [1887] Thailand K000620961 Yes
Farrow, R.A. [94] Mali K000386527 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [9322] Mexico K000476141 Yes
Merrill, E.D. [710] Philippines K000958851 Unknown Type Material Yes
Phengkhlai, C. [404] Thailand K000682997 Yes
Nascimento, M.S.B. [1163] Brazil K001102263 Yes
Glaziou, A. [20121] Brazil K001102259 Yes
Larsen, K.; et al. [34248] Thailand K000688001 Yes
Vanpuk, P. [s.n.] Thailand K000688016 Yes
Gardner [2012] Brazil K001102253 Yes
Heckman, C.W. [110] Thailand K000688004 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [9306] Mexico K000476142 Yes
Heckman, C.W. [109] Thailand K000688003 Yes
Hage, J.L.; Brito, H.S. [585] Brazil K000003900 Yes
Sellow [s.n.] Brazil K001102261 Yes
Castellanos, A. [31] Brazil K000003902 Yes
Gardner [2012] Brazil K000003898 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] Italy K000958864 Unknown Type Material Yes
Diallo, D.; Hveem, B.; Mahmoud, M.A. [250] Mali K000386526 Yes
Sorensen, Th.; Larsen, K.; Hansen, B. [1407] Thailand K000683000 Yes
Vidal, S. [3999] Philippines K000290231 Unknown Type Material Yes
Floto, F. [7312] Thailand K000688007 Yes
Bona Nascimento, M.S. [1235] Brazil K001102264 Yes
Leclercq, A. [42799] Mali K000386531 Yes
Vidal, S. [1968] Philippines K000290234 Unknown Type Material Yes
Rottler, J.P. [Herb. R. Wight. Prop. s.n.] India K001129745 Neotype Yes
Moseley [s.n.] Brazil K001102250 Yes
Pobéguin, M. [481] Guinea K000386537 Yes
Jan [s.n.] Italy K000958861 Unknown Type Material Yes
Moseley, H.N. Cabo Verde K000282397 Unknown Type Material Yes
Rabelo, B.V. [3307] Brazil K001102256 Yes
Phloenchit [1399] Thailand K000688009 Yes
Kerr, A.F.G. [19672] Thailand K000620964 Yes
Put [110] Thailand K000620965 Yes
K000282398 Unknown Type Material Yes
Tenore [s.n.] Italy K000958862 Unknown Type Material Yes
Harley, R.M.; Renvoize, S.A.; Erskine, C.M.; Brighton, C.A.; Pinheiro, R. [16361] Brazil K000003901 Yes
Strang, H.E. [518] Brazil K001102254 Yes
Ridley [140] Brazil K000004006 Yes
Bona Nascimento, M.S. [1408] Brazil K001102266 Yes
Sellow [s.n.] Brazil K001102265 Yes
Vidal, S. [4018] Philippines K000290233 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8685] India Panicum colonum K001131223 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8685] Panicum colonum K001131218 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8685] India Panicum colonum K001131220 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8685] India Panicum colonum K001131221 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8685] Panicum colonum K001131217 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8685] Bangladesh Panicum colonum K001131222 Unknown Type Material Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8685] Nepal Panicum colonum K001131224 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8685] Panicum colonum K001131225 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8685] Panicum colonum K001131219 Unknown Type Material Yes

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