Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics to S. Central Europe. It is used as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food and has environmental uses.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 3000 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tufted perennial with laterally compressed basal sheaths; stems up to 1 m high, erect
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes 3–10 cm long, solitary or aggregated into a scanty false panicle, the awns forming a twisted spire; homogamous spikelet-pairs 3–17, resembling the pedicelled spikelets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm long, including the ferociously pungent, rufously bearded 2–3 mm long callus; lower glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm long Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm long with a callus 2–3 mm long.
Distribution
N1, 2; C1, 2; S3 tropical and warm temperate regions generally.
Ecology
Altitude range 25–1650 m.

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Caespitose perennial with laterally compressed leaf sheaths; culms up to 100 cm high, erect.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf laminas 3–30 cm × 2–8 mm, abruptly narrowed at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes 3–10 cm long, mostly long-exserted, solitary or aggregated into a scanty false panicle, the awns eventually twisted together into a terminal spire; homogamous spikelet pairs 3–17, resembling the pedicelled spikelets.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm long (including the ferociously pungent and rufously barbate callus 2–3 mm long); inferior glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm long, hirtellous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm long; inferior glume green with yellowish membranous margins, without glands, the indumentum ranging from absent to tuberculate-villous; callus 2–3 mm long. Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm long (including the ferociously pungent and rufously barbate callus 2–3 mm long); inferior glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm long, hirtellous.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm long; inferior glume green with yellowish membranous margins, without glands, the indumentum ranging from absent to tuberculate-villous; callus 2–3 mm long.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Untidily tufted perennial, the basal sheaths laterally compressed; culms 30–100 cm. high, erect.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades flat, 3–30 cm. long, 2–8 mm. wide, abruptly narrowed at the tip.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Homogamous pairs 3–17, resembling the pedicelled spikelets. Racemes 3–10 cm. long, mostly long-exserted, solitary or aggregated into a scanty false panicle, the awns forming a twisted spire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm. long, including a ferociously pungent and rufously bearded callus 2–3 mm. long; lower glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm. long, hirtellous. Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm. long; lower glume green with yellowish membranous margins, without glands, the hairiness varying from glabrous to tuberculate-villous; callus 2–3 mm. long.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm. long, including a ferociously pungent and rufously bearded callus 2–3 mm. long; lower glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm. long, hirtellous.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm. long; lower glume green with yellowish membranous margins, without glands, the hairiness varying from glabrous to tuberculate-villous; callus 2–3 mm. long.
Figures
Fig. 191.
Habitat
Deciduous bushland and wooded grassland; often the dominant species in open grassy places on dry soils; 0–2100 m.
Distribution
K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 tropical and warm temperate regions generally

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Basal innovations intravaginal. Culms erect; 30-100 cm long; 1.5-3 mm diam. Culm-internodes solid. Culm-nodes black. Lateral branches fastigiate. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths keeled. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 1 mm long. Collar glabrous, or pilose. Leaf-blades 3-30 cm long; 2-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface ribbed. Leaf-blade apex abruptly acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle antrorsely scabrous above. Racemes 1; single; erect; unilateral; 3-10 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; glabrous on margins. Rhachis internodes linear. Rhachis internode tip oblique. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels oblong; semiterete; 0.2 length of fertile spikelet.
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 6-34 in number; larger than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes smooth on margins; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; asymmetrical; dorsally compressed; 5-15 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; eglandular; winged on margins; distinctly veined; smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose, or villous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 5.5-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs red; 0.2 length of spikelet. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 6-34 in number; larger than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes smooth on margins; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; asymmetrical; dorsally compressed; 5-15 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; eglandular; winged on margins; distinctly veined; smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose, or villous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 5.5-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs red; 0.2 length of spikelet.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; dark brown; without keels; 9 -veined. Lower glume surface puberulous, or pubescent, or pilose. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume linear; coriaceous; without keels. Upper glume muticous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear; 1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline; 2 -veined; erose. Fertile lemma linear; 3-5 mm long; membranous; 1 -veined. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; geniculate; 50-80 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn hirtellous. Palea absent or minute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 2.5 mm long. Stigmas 2.
Distribution
Europe: central, southwestern, and southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: southwest USA, south-central USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Andropogoneae. FTEA.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1000 - 3000 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Perennial, up to about 1 m. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Awns twisted into a spire when young, and forming a malignant tangled knot at maturity; callus painfully pungent.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1000–3000 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Boyacá, Cesar, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Santander, Tolima.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Culms 30-40 cm long. Leaves cauline (middle third of culm); distichous. Leaf-sheaths 2.5 cm long; keeled; striately veined. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 1 mm long. Leaf-blades conduplicate; 2.5-7 cm long; 2-4 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade surface glabrous; hairless except near base. Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous; scabrous; tuberculate-ciliate; hairy at base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; erect; unilateral; 4-5 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Rhachis internodes linear. Rhachis internode tip oblique. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels oblong; semiterete; 0.3 mm long; 0.05 length of fertile spikelet.
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 8-12 in number; larger than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 7-8 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear; 1.5 mm long; truncate. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; eglandular; winged on margins; smooth; glabrous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 8.5-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; curved; 2.5 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs dark brown. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 8-12 in number; larger than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 7-8 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear; 1.5 mm long; truncate. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; eglandular; winged on margins; smooth; glabrous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 8.5-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; curved; 2.5 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs dark brown.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; dark brown; without keels. Lower glume surface grooved on either side of midvein; pubescent. Lower glume apex truncate. Upper glume linear; coriaceous; without keels. Upper glume muticous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined; without lateral veins; erose. Fertile lemma linear; 2-3 mm long; membranous; 1 -veined. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; geniculate; 40-70 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn pubescent. Palea absent or minute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3. Stigmas 2.
Distribution
Asia-tropical: India.
Reference
Andropogoneae. Deshpande.

[UPB]
Use Medicines
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Assam, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, Ghana, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Ascension, Cook Is., Nansei-shoto, Venezuela, Wallis-Futuna Is.

English
(Common) spear grass, Stick grass, Tanglehead

Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [91], Cape Verde K001259203 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [90], Cape Verde K001134467 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [89], Cape Verde K001134468 Yes
Jan 1, 2014 Gardner, G. [3522], Brazil K001072840 Yes
Jan 1, 2014 Ule, E. [7920], Brazil K001072841 Yes
May 27, 1933 s.coll. [s.n.], Tamil Nadu K000911728 Yes
Jan 1, 1817 Wallich, N. [1688], India K000245938 Yes
Jan 1, 1817 Hohenacker, R.F. [301], Karnataka K000245939 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 1817 Hohenacker, R.F. [301], Karnataka K000245940 isotype Yes
Schimper [1219], Ethiopia K000280097 isotype Yes
Schimper [1219], Ethiopia K000280098 isotype Yes
Schimper [1219], Ethiopia K000280099 isotype Yes
Spruce, R. [6094], Ecuador K000201742 Yes
Kerr, A.F.G. [11072], Thailand K000620580 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [7976], Thailand K000620582 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [7073], Thailand K000620583 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [4610], Thailand K000620584 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [1267], Thailand K000620585 No
Put [2173], Thailand K000620586 No
Marcan, A. [2313], Thailand K000620591 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [19765], Thailand K000620593 No
Lindhard, E. [s.n.], Thailand K000688890 No
Smitinand [6190], Thailand K000688899 No
Tagawa, M. [T 2203], Thailand K000688900 No
Parry, D.E. [38], Thailand K000688901 No
van Beusekom, C.F. [3789], Thailand K000688902 No
Larsen, K. [1596], Thailand K000688903 No
Sorensen, Th. [5886], Thailand K000688905 No
Hinton, G.B. [6700], Guerrero K000476384 No
Hinton, G.B. [1821], México State K000476381 No
Put [2173], Thailand K000620587 No
Put [1967], Thailand K000620589 No
Smitinand, T. [4001], Thailand K000688897 No
s.coll. [s.n.], France K000911729 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [5306], México State K000476382 No
Smitinand, T. [2032], Thailand K000688895 No
Collins, D.J. [1909], Thailand K000688892 No
Hinton, G.B. [9400], Guerrero K000476383 No
Smitinand, T. [1613], Thailand K000688894 No
Smitinand, T. [4264], Thailand K000688898 No
Sorensen, Th. [4437], Thailand K000688904 No
Hinton, G.B. [2068], México State K000476385 No
Hosseus, C.C. [108a], Thailand K000688891 No
Spruce, R. [6094], Ecuador K000201743 Yes
Marcan, A. [2229], Thailand K000620592 No
Eiten, G. [10790], Brazil K001072843 Yes
Put [1967], Thailand K000620588 No
Marcan, A. [2313], Thailand K000620590 No
Smitinand, T. [3063], Thailand K000688896 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [15976], Thailand K000620581 No
Chantaranothai, P. [90/478], Thailand K000688893 No
Kloss, C.B. [s.n.], Thailand K000688888 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [19559], Thailand K000620579 No
Lindhard, E. [s.n.], Thailand K000688889 No
Jan 1, 1951 Bourne, E.T. [2026], Tamil Nadu Heteropogon fischerianus K000245941 isosyntype Yes
Jan 1, 1951 Bourne, E.T. [2026], Tamil Nadu Heteropogon fischerianus K000245942 isosyntype Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128246 Yes
Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128244 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8800], Nepal Andropogon contortus K001128242 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128238 Yes
Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8800], Myanmar Andropogon contortus K001128245 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800], India Andropogon contortus K001128239 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128237 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800], India Andropogon contortus K001128241 Yes
Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128243 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128236 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800], India Andropogon contortus K001128240 Yes

First published in Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2: 836 (1817)

Accepted by

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  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand. Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
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  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

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  • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
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  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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Flora of Somalia

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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
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  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
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  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

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  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
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  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
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  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
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  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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  • Kew Science Photographs

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  • Plants and People Africa

    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

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    ColPlantA database
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