Genus:
Hordeum L.

Hordeum distichon L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is a cultigen from Iraq.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual; caespitose. Culms erect; 60-120 cm long; 3-5 -noded. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blades 10-45 cm long; 6-12 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; bilateral; 7-12 cm long. Rhachis tough; flattened; ciliate on margins. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; regular; 2 -rowed. Rhachis internodes cuneate. Spikelets in threes. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster.
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 10 mm long; as long as fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes subulate; 4-5 mm long; ciliate on margins. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 1; exserted from glumes; 10 mm long; muticous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 9-12 mm long; persistent on plant. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 10 mm long; as long as fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes subulate; 4-5 mm long; ciliate on margins. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 1; exserted from glumes; 10 mm long; muticous.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 9-12 mm long; persistent on plant.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes collateral; similar; shorter than spikelet; gaping. Lower glume linear; 4-5 mm long; 1 length of upper glume. Lower glume apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 4-10 mm long. Upper glume linear; 4-5 mm long; 0.3-0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma. Upper glume apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 4-10 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic; 9-12 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough above. Lemma apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 12-15 mm long overall; limb scabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3. Ovary pubescent on apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; sulcate on hilar side; hairy at apex. Hilum linear.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north and northeast tropical. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: Subarctic. South America: western South America and southern South America.
Reference
Triticeae. Fl Iran.

Native to:

Iraq

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Amur, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Central European Rus, China North-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, East European Russia, Ecuador, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Kerguelen, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krym, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Magadan, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Romania, Sakhalin, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tasmania, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Western Australia, Yugoslavia

English
Two-row Barley

Hordeum distichon L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 85 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Al-Rawi, A. (1987). Flora of Kuwait 2: 1-455. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
  • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Nowak, A. & Nobis, M. (eds.) (2020). Illustrated Flora of Tajikistan and adjacent areas 2: 367-766. PAN, Polish academy of sciences.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Not accepted by

  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo. [Cited as Hordeum vulgare.]

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Al-Rawi, A. (1987). Flora of Kuwait 2: 1-455. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
  • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0