Hordeum murinum L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 85 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Macaronesia, Europe, Medit. to Central Asia and W. Himalaya. It is an annual or biennial and grows primarily in the temperate biome.

Descriptions

Morphology General Habit
Annual; caespitose. Culms 6-60 cm long; 3-5 -noded. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5-1 mm long. Leaf-blades 2-20 cm long; 2-8 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; linear, or oblong; bilateral; 4-12 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Rhachis internodes oblong; 3-3.5 mm long; falling with spikelet above. Spikelets in threes. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster. Pedicels oblong.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 7-11 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes subulate; 16-30 mm long; eciliate on margins, or ciliate on margins. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 1; exserted from glumes; 7-11 mm long; 1-awned; with 10-40 mm long awn. Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 7-12 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 7-11 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes subulate; 16-30 mm long; eciliate on margins, or ciliate on margins. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 1; exserted from glumes; 7-11 mm long; 1-awned; with 10-40 mm long awn.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 7-12 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes collateral; similar; gaping. Lower glume subulate; 25-30 mm long; 1 length of upper glume. Lower glume margins ciliate. Upper glume subulate; 25-30 mm long. Upper glume margins ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate; 7-12 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scabrous; rough above. Lemma apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 18-50 mm long overall; limb scabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 0.7-1.2 mm long. Ovary pubescent on apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; sulcate on hilar side; hairy at apex. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, and south. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: south-central and north-central. North America: western Canada, northwest USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
Reference
Triticeae. CEH.
[GB]

Sources

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images