Genus:
Ischaemum L.

Ischaemum aristatum L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Vietnam to Temp. E. Asia, Borneo, Solomon Islands to W. Pacific.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose; clumped loosely. Rhizomes short. Culms decumbent, or prostrate; 30-80 cm long; 1.2-2 mm diam. Culm-internodes terete, or channelled; 4-12(-25) cm long; smooth; distally glabrous. Culm-nodes glabrous, or pubescent. Lateral branches lacking, or sparse; arising from lower culm. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths outer margin glabrous, or hairy. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 3-4 mm long; scarious; brown; truncate. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 5-30 cm long; 4-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy. Leaf-blade margins smooth, or scabrous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2; paired; appressed back to back; 4-7 cm long; 5-8 mm wide. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; angular; scaberulous on margins; glabrous on margins, or pubescent on margins. Rhachis internodes columnar; 3-4 mm long; flat and forming a U or V shape with the pedicel in rear view. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels columnar; glabrous, or puberulous.
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; ovate; 4-6 mm long; shorter than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; keeled; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes; muticous, or 1-awned; with 0-3 mm long awn.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate, or rhomboid; dorsally compressed; 5-8 mm long; 2-2.3 mm wide; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus glabrous; base truncate; inserted. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; ovate; 4-6 mm long; shorter than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; keeled; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes; muticous, or 1-awned; with 0-3 mm long awn.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate, or rhomboid; dorsally compressed; 5-8 mm long; 2-2.3 mm wide; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus glabrous; base truncate; inserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; much thinner above; 2-keeled; keeled above; keeled laterally; winged on keel; winged broadly; winged above; 5 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume lateral veins obscure; with cross-veins; intercarinal veins distinct; intercarinal veins 3 in number. Lower glume surface convex. Lower glume apex dentate; 2 -fid. Upper glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; 1-keeled; keeled above; 5 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; hyaline; acute. Fertile lemma elliptic; hyaline; without keel. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; straight, or geniculate; 1-10 mm long overall; clearly exserted from spikelet, or not or scarcely exserted from spikelet; without a column, or with twisted column. Palea 1 length of lemma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 2.5 mm long.
Distribution
Africa: western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Pacific: southwestern, northwestern, and north-central.
Reference
Andropogoneae. Keng & Zhao 1996.

Native to:

Borneo, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Fiji, Hainan, Japan, Korea, Manchuria, Nansei-shoto, Niue, Samoa, Solomon Is., Taiwan, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Hawaii, Mauritius, Trinidad-Tobago

Ischaemum aristatum L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1049 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Not accepted by

  • Srivastava, S.K. & Nair, V.J. (2010). Genus Ischaemum L. (Poaceae) in India Nelumbo 52: 63-92. [Cited as Ischaemum indicum.]

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0