Torilis Adans.

First published in Fam. Pl. 2: 99 (1763)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Old World.

Descriptions

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Annual herbs, ± hispid or appressed-strigulose, leaves 1–3-pinnate with toothed or rarely entire segments
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels compound
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucre present or absent, involucel of several narrow bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white or reddish
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals obovate, incised above with an incurved lobule, outer often somewhat larger but not conspicuously radiant
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx teeth small or very small, triangular or lanceolate, persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit linear to ovoid, somewhat laterally compressed, commissure narrow Mericarps subterete, the 5 primary ridges filiform with longitudinally appressed bristles; secondary ridges with 1–3 rows of long, glochidiate, usually scabrid long or shorter spines, or sometimes mericarps heteromorphic with one spiny and the other verruculose or more shortly spinous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae solitary beneath secondary ridges
Disc
Disk scarcely obvious, stylopodia short
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Carpophore
Carpophore bifid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Endosperm
Endosperm subterete or slightly compressed, commissural face shallowly sulcate, margins incurved (scarcely so in T. tenella), but not strongly involute.
Distribution
Some 15 species distributed from Macaronesia and the Mediterranean region to E Asia; seven species in Iraq.
Note
Torilis (from the Gr. τορείω, toreia, relief carving or embossing, according to JE Smith (English Flora vol. 2, 1824). As Schischkin (1950), Gilbert-Carter (1964) and others have pointed out, most of Adanson’s names appear to have been made up by the author and are meaningless.)
[FIQ]

Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts present or absent, rays 2 to numerous (obsolete in subcapitate species).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracteoles
Bracteoles narrowly subulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx teeth small.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white to pinkish, with an inflexed apex; outer petals radiate in some species.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stylopodium
Stylopodium shortly conical.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
More rarely the spines of 1 or both mericarps replaced with tubercles. Fruit ovoid to linear; primary ribs filiform, covered with spiny bristles; secondary ribs indistinct in intervals between the primary ribs, with numerous glochidiate spines.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Carpophore
Carpophore 2-cleft at the apex or split to one half of its length.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae solitary in the intervals and 2 in the commissural face.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed dorsally flattened, with a concave face towards the commissure, lateral margins of the endosperm not incurved.
Morphology General Habit
Erect or procumbent annual (or rarely biennial) herbs with obvious tap roots.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnate to 3-pinnate with sheathing petioles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels compound (sub-capitate in some species), terminal and lateral.
[FZ]

Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Annual herbs with a ± slender taproot, ± setulose-hairy
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 1–2-pinnate with sharply toothed pinnatifid leaflets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels numerous, compound, pedunculate to sessile; involucre various, of several bracts or only one, or absent; involucel of several narrow bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous with some ♂ flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-teeth present, sometimes conspicuous, sometimes small and ± concealed by the prickles in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white to purple, the outer sometimes radiant and obcordate, otherwise all emarginate above with an incurved lobule
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ovoid to oblong, somewhat laterally compressed, with a rather narrow commissure; primary ribs slender, filiform, with longitudinally appressed setulose hairs; secondary ribs low, furnished with numerous, slender, tuberculate, glochidiate-tipped spines, or sometimes one (rarely both) mericarps with shorter or tuberculiform spines only; stylopodia conical, short; vittae solitary beneath each secondary rib, 2 on the commissure; carpophore entire or commonly shortly bifid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Endosperm shallowly horseshoe-shaped in section, terete dorsally or with shallow grooves beneath the vittae.
[FTEA]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Some 15 species in Eurasia and Africa.
Morphology General Habit
Annual herbs, ± hispidly hairy
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 1–2-pinnate with pinnatifid segments
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels compound; bracts 1 to several or absent; bracteoles several-Flowers bisexual or some flowers male
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes distinct to small or obsolete
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white to purple, the outer ones sometimes larger than the others and obcordate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits ovoid to oblong, somewhat laterally compressed, with a rather narrow commissure; primary ribs slender, setulose; secondary ribs with numerous slender papillate and apically glochidiate spines; vittae 1 beneath each secondary rib, 2 on each commissural face; stylopodia conical, short.
[FSOM]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Iraq

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0