Lolium temulentum L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 83 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Macaronesia, N. Africa, Temp. Eurasia. It is an annual and grows primarily in the subtropical biome. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for food.

Descriptions

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 2000–3000 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Norte de Santander.
Habit
Herb.
Vernacular
Ray grass inglés
[UPFC]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology General Habit
A rather robust annual.
Morphology Culms
Culms up to 90 cm. tall, 2-4-noded, solitary or tufted, somewhat stout, erect or geniculately ascending, glabrous, smooth or scabrous towards the spike.
Morphology Leaves Leaf sheaths
Leaf-sheaths prominently striate, rather tight, dorsally rounded, smooth or scaberulous, glabrous; Ligule c. 2 mm. long.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf-laminae 6-30(-40) x 0·3-1·3 cm., linear, tapering to a fine point, with 2 narrow auricles at the base, usually expanded, firm, scaberulous or smooth except for the margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spikes 10-30 cm. long, erect, rigid, pale-green; rhachis stout, somewhat waved, dorsally scaberulous or smooth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 12-25 x 4-6 mm., 4-10-flowered, elliptic-oblong, oblong or obovate-oblong in outline, moderately compressed about their own length or slightly more apart.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Superior glume 7-9-nerved, as long as or longer than the rest of the spikelet, narrowly oblong, obtuse, rigid, smooth or asperulous.
Superior
Superior glume 7-9-nerved, as long as or longer than the rest of the spikelet, narrowly oblong, obtuse, rigid, smooth or asperulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Lemmas 6-8 mm. long, 5-9-nerved, muticous or awned, dorsally rounded, elliptic to ovate, somewhat rigid, smooth; awn (if present) up to 20 mm. long, straight, scabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers c. 2·5 mm. long, linear.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis c. 7 mm. long, elliptic-oblong in outline, tightly enclosed by the lemma and palea.
[FZ]

Morphology General Habit
Annual; culms solitary, or caespitose. Culms erect, or decumbent; 30-90 cm long. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2 mm long. Leaf-blades 6-40 cm long; 3-13 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; bilateral; 10-30 cm long. Rhachis semiterete. Spikelet packing adaxial; 2 their length apart; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 4-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 12-26 mm long; 4-6 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 4-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 12-26 mm long; 4-6 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; persistent; exceeding apex of florets, or reaching apex of florets; similar to fertile lemma in texture. Upper glume lanceolate; coriaceous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous. Upper glume apex obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic to ovate; 6-8 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5-9 -veined. Lemma apex obtuse; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 0-20 mm long overall. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Hilum linear.
Distribution
Europe: eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India and Malesia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: north-central. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
Reference
Poeae. FTEA.
[GB]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 2000 - 3000 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada
[CPLC]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 2000 - 3000 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
[UPB]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Stiff annual.
Morphology Culms
Culms 30–90 cm. high, tufted or solitary, erect or geniculate at the base, slender to moderately stout.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades 6–40 cm. long and 3–13 mm. wide, flat, with short spreading auricles at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spikes erect, 10–30 cm. long and 5–12 mm. wide, rigid, green, the spikelets about their own length or more apart.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets oblong, 12–26 mm. long, 4–10-flowered; upper glume usually reaching to or exceeding uppermost lemma, rigid, 7–9-nerved, obtuse; lemmas elliptic to ovate, 6–8 mm. long, smooth, obtuse, awned or awnless.
Distribution
K3 K4 T2 Mediterranean Regionintroduced and naturalized in most warm temperate countries
[FTEA]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
ballico, borrachuelo, cizaña, cizaño, joyo, yoyo
[UNAL]

Uses

Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
[UPFC]

Use Medicines
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).
[UPB]

Common Names

English
Bearded Rye-grass, Ray grass

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    • Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/