Genus:
Panicum L.

Panicum turgidum Forssk.

This species is accepted, and its native range is N. & W. Tropical Africa to India.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Cataphylls evident. Culms 40-100(-200) cm long; 1-6 mm diam.; woody. Culm-internodes solid; glaucous. Lateral branches suffrutescent. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; (0.5-)2-15 cm long; 1-6 mm wide; coriaceous; stiff; glaucous. Leaf-blade apex pungent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; pyramidal; 2.5-15(-30) cm long; contracted about primary branches. Primary panicle branches spreading; distant; bearing spikelets almost to the base. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; compressed slightly; acute, or acuminate; (3.1-)3.4-4.5(-5) mm long; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; compressed slightly; acute, or acuminate; (3.1-)3.4-4.5(-5) mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes similar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume ovate; 0.75-1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5-9 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 9-11 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 3 mm long; indurate; pallid, or yellow; shiny; without keel. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 2 mm long.
Distribution
Africa: north, west tropical, and northeast tropical. Asia-temperate: western Asia and Arabia. Asia-tropical: India.
Reference
Paniceae. FTA.

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Perennial up to 1·2 m. high, with stout roots, and sturdy stems branching untidily in all directions
Ecology
Dry sandy soils.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Glaucous perennial forming rounded bushes up to 100(–200) cm high and often as much across
Morphology Stem
Stems erect or ascending, woody, branched at the nodes, sometimes forming fastigiate tufts
Morphology Leaves
Leaves linear-lanceolate, (0.5–)2–15 cm x 1–6 mm, flat, folded or inrolled, glabrous and glaucous, stiff and pungent, often much shorter than the sheath, rarely filiform and up to 30 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle subpyramidal, 2.5–15(–30) cm long, lax, the branches distant and eventually spreading
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets ovoid, 3.5–4.5(–5) mm long, glabrous, acute or acuminate, turgid and often gaping at anthesis; lower glume broadly ovate, 3/4 as long to almost as long as the spikelet, 5- to 9-nerved; upper lemma pallid, smooth and glossy.
Distribution
N1–3 northern and north-eastern Africa eastwards to Pakistan.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–1370 m.
Vernacular
Dallan, darif, dungara (Somali).

Native to:

Algeria, Benin, Burkina, Chad, Congo, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara, Yemen

Panicum turgidum Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 18 (1775)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Al-Rawi, A. (1987). Flora of Kuwait 2: 1-455. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae. Candollea 47: 113-179.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.
  • Guinea, E. (1948). Catálogo razonado de las plantas del Sáhara Español. Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 8: 357-429.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 415
  • Chev. Bot. 730
  • De Miré & Gillet in J. Agric. Trop, 3: 734.
  • F.T.A. 9: 706
  • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 18 (1775)
  • in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 14: 24

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.
  • Guinea, E. (1948). Catálogo razonado de las plantas del Sáhara Español. Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 8: 357-429.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images