Genus:
Paspalum L.

Paspalum notatum Flüggé

This species is accepted, and its native range is Peru to Brazil and N. Argentina. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, has environmental uses and as animal food and a medicine.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 2500 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
Native and cultivated in Colombia.

[FZ]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Mat-forming perennial arising from stout rhizomes.
Morphology Culms
Culms 15–50 cm. high.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes paired (rarely 3), each 2.5–12 cm. long, the spikelets borne singly in 2 rows on a narrow rhachis.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2.5–3.8 mm. long, broadly elliptic, plumply plano-convex, green.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Superior glume cartilaginous, glabrous.
Superior
Superior glume cartilaginous, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Inferior lemma cartilaginous, glabrous. Superior lemma pallid at maturity.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; mat forming. Rhizomes elongated. Culms 15-50 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades spreading; 2-30 cm long; 3-10 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2(-3); paired; unilateral; 2.5-12 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 0.5 cm long. Rhachis wingless; angular; 1 mm wide. Spikelet packing abaxial; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; plano-convex; obtuse; 2.5-3.8 mm long; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; plano-convex; obtuse; 2.5-3.8 mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; cartilaginous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; cartilaginous; 1 -veined; without lateral veins; obtuse. Fertile lemma ovate; gibbous; 2-3 mm long; indurate; pallid; without keel. Lemma surface striate. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
Distribution
Africa: west-central tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: northeast USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Paniceae. FTEA.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–2500 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Boyacá, Caldas, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Guaviare, Magdalena, Meta, Quindío, Risaralda, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés, Vichada.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Mat forming perennial arising from stout rhizomes; culms 15–50 cm. high.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades broadly linear, 2–30 cm. long, 3–10 mm. wide, stiffly spreading.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of 2 (rarely 3) racemes barely separated by a common axis ± 5 mm. long; racemes 2.5–12 cm. long, bearing the spikelets singly in 2 rows on a narrow rhachis ± 1 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets broadly elliptic, 2.5–3.8 mm. long, green; upper glume and lower lemma as long as the spikelet, cartilaginous, glabrous; upper lemma finely striate, pallid at maturity.
Habitat
Introduced from America, and cultivated for grazing and erosion control; also found as an escape; 500–2100 m.
Distribution
tropical America K4 T1 T6 U4

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
bahía, grama de trenza, grama trencilla, grama trenza, gramilla blanca, pasto bahía, pasto macana, pasto trencilla, trencita, trenza

[UPB]
Use Medicines
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay

Introduced into:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Arkansas, Belize, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Marianas, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Myanmar, New Jersey, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oklahoma, Panamá, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Solomon Is., South Carolina, Spain, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Paspalum notatum Flüggé appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Nov 1, 2013 Smith, L.B. [15686], Brazil K001054439 Yes
Jan 1, 2013 Irwin, H.S. [2320], Brazil K001054414 Yes
Aug 12, 1981 Lowe, J. [4264], Brazil K001054443 Yes
May 15, 1974 Carauta, J.P.P. [807], Brazil K001054422 Yes
Sep 1, 1973 Klein, R.M. [10264], Brazil K001054438 Yes
Jan 1, 1973 Irwin, H.S. [25121], Brazil K001054426 Yes
Noblick, L.R. [2461], Bahia K000004164 Yes
Harley, R.M. [21656], Bahia K000004163 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [1585], México State K000476176 No
Hinton, G.B. [9245], Guerrero K000476174 No
Clayton, W.D. [4605], Brazil K001054432 Yes
Carauta, J.P.P. [807], Brazil K001054423 Yes
Pereira, E. [5369], Brazil K001054425 Yes
Eichman [82], Mexico K001054430 Yes
Kuhlmann, M. [3541], Brazil K001054436 Yes
Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001054420 Yes
Lindeman, J.C. [360], Brazil K001054412 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [1657], México State K000476175 No
Clayton, W.D. [4370], Brazil K001054417 Yes
Smith, L.B. [13779], Brazil K001054403 Yes
Dombrowski, L.T.D. [10023], Brazil K001054437 Yes
Clayton, W.D. [4107], Brazil K001054433 Yes
Hatschbach, G.G. [48982], Brazil K001054441 Yes
Reitz, R. [8231], Brazil K001054405 Yes
Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001054421 Yes
Dombrowski, L.T. [2796], Brazil K001054411 Yes
Clayton, W.D. [4078], Brazil K001054435 Yes
Clayton, W.D. [4086], Brazil K001054434 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [1585], México State K000476177 No
Glaziou, A.F.M. [4328], Brazil K001054427 Yes
Castellanos, A. [24638], Brazil K001054404 Yes
Dombrowski, L.T. [1567], Brazil K001054409 Yes
Hatschbach, G.G. [31326], Brazil K001054440 Yes
Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001054418 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [6931], Brazil K001054416 Yes
Dusén, P. [16062], Brazil K001054408 Yes
Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001054431 Yes
Smith, L.B. [14689], Brazil K001054413 Yes
Hatschbach, G.G. [13987], Brazil K001054407 Yes
Quarín, C.L. [4011], Brazil K001054444 Yes
Kerr, J.G. [s.n.], Argentina K001054419 Yes
Sello [s.n.], Brazil K001054428 Yes
Clayton, W.D. [4342], Brazil K001054410 Yes
Clayton, W.D. [4373], Brazil K001054424 Yes
Hatschbach, G.G. [25891], Brazil K001054406 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [4328], Brazil K001054415 Yes
Eichman [82], Mexico K001054429 Yes
Peru K000326052 Yes
Colombia K001462726 Yes
Colombia K001462727 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [3810], Colombia K001462728 Yes
Colombia K001462729 Yes
Ecuador K001462730 Yes
Ecuador K001462731 Yes
Ecuador K001462732 Yes
Ecuador K001462733 Yes
Ecuador K001462734 Yes
Ecuador K001462735 Yes
Peru K001462736 Yes
Peru K001462737 Yes
Peru K001462738 Yes
Peru K001462739 Yes
Peru K001462740 Yes
Peru K001462741 Yes
Peru K001462742 Yes
Peru K001462743 Yes
Peru K001462744 Yes
Peru K001462745 Yes
Peru K001462746 Yes

First published in Gram. Monogr., Paspalum: 106 (1810)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Jeanmonod, D. & Schlüssel, A. (éd.) (2012). Notes et contributions à la flore de Corse, XXIV Candollea 67: 293-321.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. & Pensiero, J.F. (2014). Gramineae VI Flora del Paraguay 45: 1-392. Editions des Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la ville de Genève.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2019). https://doi.org/10.2436/20.1502.01.18 epublication.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jeanmonod, D. & Schlüssel, A. (éd.) (2012). Notes et contributions à la flore de Corse, XXIV Candollea 67: 293-321.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 78 (1965).
  • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 34 (1947).
  • Fluegge, Monogr. Pasp.: 106 (1810).
  • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 47 (1960).
  • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 2: 126 (1934).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Neotropikey

    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0