Genus:
Phalaris L.

Phalaris caroliniana Walter

This species is accepted, and its native range is U.S.A. to N. Mexico, Guadalupe.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual; caespitose. Culms 50-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 5-15 cm long; 3-8 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; ovate; 1-7 cm long; 0.8-2 cm wide. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 4.2-5.6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 4.2-5.6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 4.2-5.6 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged narrowly; winged above; 3 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scaberulous. Lower glume surface smooth. Lower glume apex acute, or acuminate. Upper glume elliptic; 4.2-5.6 mm long; 1.2-1.4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged above; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scaberulous. Upper glume surface smooth. Upper glume apex acute, or acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets similar; barren; without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear; 1.2-2.5 mm long; 0.33-0.5 length of fertile lemma; pubescent. Fertile lemma elliptic; laterally compressed; 3-4.7 mm long; cartilaginous; shiny; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent; hairy all along. Lemma apex acute. Palea cartilaginous; 2 -veined; without keels. Palea surface pubescent; hairy on back.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 2-2.3 mm long. Hilum linear.
Distribution
North America: northwest USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico.
Reference
Aveneae. Anderson.

Native to:

Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia

Introduced into:

Chile Central, Puerto Rico

Phalaris caroliniana Walter appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
J.T. [s.n.] K000838160 Yes
Nuttall, T. [s.n.], Arkansas K000838161 Yes
Drummond, T. [473], Louisiana K000838159 Yes
Torrey, J. [s.n.] K000838165 Yes
Nuttall, T. [s.n.], Oregon K000838162 Yes
Elliott, S. [s.n.] K000838163 Yes
Chealley, G. [s.n.], Texas K000838166 Yes
Nuttal, T. [s.n.], Arkansas K000838158 Yes
Hall, E. [838], Texas K000838164 Yes

First published in Fl. Carol.: 74 (1788)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Moran, R. (1996). The flora of Guadalupe island, Mexico Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 19: 1-190.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0