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This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to Kenya, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Pacific.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology Stem
Stems 2–4(–10) m high
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 30–80 cm x 12–40 mm, flat, scabrid on the lower surface at least towards the tip, the tip attenuate and stiff (occasionally smooth beneath or with filiform tip)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle (20–)30–50 cm long, the lowest node often many-branched in a whorl, the branches bare of spikelets in the lower part
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets with rhachilla-hairs 4–7(–8) mm long, rather sparse; lower glume ovate, 2–4 mm long; upper glume narrowly to very narrowly elliptic, 4–6 mm long; first lemma (7.5–)10–12 mm long; fertile lemma 8.5–11 mm long.
Distribution
N1; S2, 3 tropical Africa, tropical Asia and northern Australia.
Ecology
Altitude up to 550 m.
Vernacular
Gul bilanwe (Somali).

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Perennial reed, with creeping rhizomes.
Morphology Culms
Culms erect, up to 10 m. high.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades 30–80 cm. long and 12–40 mm. wide, glabrous, rough to the touch beneath (at least in upper half), the tips attenuate and stiff (occasionally almost smooth or with filiform tips).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle 30–50 cm. long and 10–20 cm. wide, the lowest node often many-branched in a whorl, the branches bare of spikelets for some distance from their base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 9–12 mm. long, the rhachilla-hairs 4–7 mm. long, rather sparse; lower glume just over half as long as the upper; upper glume narrowly elliptic to very narrowly elliptic, 4–6 mm. long, acute to subacute; lowest lemma very narrowly elliptic, 7.5–12 mm. long; fertile lemmas very narrowly lanceolate, 8.5–11 mm. long.
Habitat
Stream sides, lake margins and swampy places; 300–2000 m.
Distribution
K4 K7 U2 U4 extending through Ethiopia and the Sudan Republic into West AfricaPolynesia, northern Australia and tropical Asia

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
A rhizomatous perennial up to about 7 m. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Large plumose panicles
Ecology
Found near water.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms erect; reed-like; 200-1000 cm long. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths loose. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; 30-80 cm long; 12-40 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; rough abaxially. Leaf-blade apex attenuate; hardened.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle; bearing juvenile spikelets at emergence. Panicle open; oblong; dense; 30-50 cm long; 10-20 cm wide. Primary panicle branches profusely divided; naked below. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 3-11 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 9-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 0.5-1 mm long; bearded; obtuse. Floret callus hairs 0.5 length of lemma.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 3-11 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 9-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 0.5-1 mm long; bearded; obtuse. Floret callus hairs 0.5 length of lemma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet; similar to fertile lemma in texture; gaping. Lower glume elliptic; 0.5-0.6 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 4-6 mm long; 0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea; persisting on inflorescence. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to fertile lemma; elliptic; 7.5-12 mm long; 1 length of fertile lemma; membranous; 3-7 -veined; acuminate. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 8.5-11 mm long; membranous; without keel; 1-3 -veined. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea 0.66 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2. Anthers 3 (2 in sterile floret). Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum elliptic.
Distribution
Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, and east tropical. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central.
Reference
Arundineae. FTEA.

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marshall Is., Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen

Introduced into:

Gulf of Guinea Is.

Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Merrill, E.D. [319], Philippines K000290425
Kurz, S. [775], West Bengal K000032475 Unknown type material
Clarke, C.B. [24714], West Bengal K000032476 Unknown type material
Schimper [1697], Ethiopia K000366968
Kerr, A.F.G. [3969], Thailand K000621691
Kerr, A.F.G. [7940], Thailand K000621692
Kerr, A.F.G. [8925], Thailand K000621693
Rabil [237], Thailand K000621695
van Beusekon, C.F. [4239], Thailand K000682289
Rabil [237], Thailand K000621696
Sorensen, Th. [2026], Thailand K000682286
Koenig, J.G. [s.n.], India K000859960 Unknown type material
Laegaard, S. [21777], Thailand K000682285
Sorensen, Th. [2705], Thailand K000682287
Kerr, A.F.G. [3969], Thailand K000621690
Kerr, A.F.G. [19806], Thailand K000621694
Sorensen, Th. [6079], Thailand K000682288

First published in Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 324 (1841)

Accepted by

  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Middleton, D.J. & al. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Singapore 7: 1-525. Singapore Botanic Gardens.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Nom. Bot. ed. 2, 2: 324 (1841).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Steud., Nom. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 324 (1841).

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0