Genus:
Poa L.

Poa pratensis L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Subarctic to Temp. Northern Hemisphere to N. Mexico. It is used as animal food and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes elongated. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 10-90 cm long; 2-4 -noded. Culm-internodes terete; smooth. Lateral branches lacking. Leaves mostly basal. Leaf-sheaths keeled; smooth. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-3 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blades 5-30 cm long; 2-4 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth, or scaberulous; glabrous, or pubescent (rarely); sparsely hairy. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous. Leaf-blade apex abruptly acute; hooded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open, or contracted; oblong, or pyramidal, or ovate; dense, or loose; 2-20 cm long; 1-12 cm wide. Primary panicle branches ascending, or spreading; 3-5 -nate. Panicle branches flexuous; scaberulous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 0.2-2 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2-5 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or ovate; laterally compressed; 4-6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas; smooth. Floret callus woolly.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2-5 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or ovate; laterally compressed; 4-6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas; smooth. Floret callus woolly.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 2-3.5 mm long; 0.8 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1(-3) -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume lateral veins absent, or obscure. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic, or ovate; 2.5-4 mm long; 0.9-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma ovate; oblong in profile; 3-4 mm long; membranous; much thinner above; much thinner on margins; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma midvein scabrous; ciliate; hairy below. Lemma lateral veins distinct; stopping well short of apex. Lemma surface granulose. Lemma margins ciliate; hairy below. Lemma apex acute. Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels scabrous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 1.5-2 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum punctiform.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, south, and middle Atlantic ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: north-central. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
Reference
Poeae. CEH.

[UPFC]
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: native grassland.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Lebanon-Syria, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon

Introduced into:

Aleutian Is., Algeria, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Azores, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Falkland Is., Free State, Haiti, Hawaii, Jamaica, Japan, Kerguelen, KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lesotho, Madeira, Marion-Prince Edward, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Peru, Puerto Rico, Réunion, South Australia, South Georgia, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Victoria, Western Australia

English
Meadow Grass

Poa pratensis L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2010 Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Sikkim K000789640 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 2010 Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Sikkim K000789641 isotype Yes
Aug 2, 1985 Kirk, T. [42], New Zealand K000641387 lectotype Yes
Merrill, E.D. [4712], Philippines K000290458 isotype Yes
s.coll. [109], Great Britain K000641183 Yes
Sysrejtschikow, D. [2832], Latvia K000641186 Yes
s.coll. [103], Great Britain K000641180 Yes
s.coll. [101], Great Britain K000641182 Yes
Nyárády, E.I. [1171], Romania K000641187 Yes
Pohle, R. [s.n.], Russian Federation K000789559 Unknown type material Yes
Hartmann, H. [2380], Jammu-Kashmir K000789642 isotype Yes
s.coll. [111], Great Britain K000641185 Yes
s.coll. [107], Great Britain K000641181 Yes
Ovchinnikov [1371], Tajikistan K000789558 Yes
s.coll. [105], Great Britain K000641184 Yes
Hohenacker, R.F. [s.n.], Iran K000641310 Yes
Alexeenko, T. [3044], Tajikistan K000789557 isotype Yes
Laínz [s.n.], Spain K000641189 Yes
Nyárády, E.I. [728], Romania K000641188 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 67 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia. Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2020). Flora of Japan IVa: 1-430. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand. Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kavousi, M., Assadi, M. & Nejadsattari, T. (2015). Taxonomic revision of the genus Poa L. in Iran, new additions to Flora Iranica, and a new identification key. Turkish Journal of Botany 39: 105-127.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal'nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Komiljon, T., Natalya, B., Avazbek, B., Dilnoza, A., Ziyoviddin, Y., Deng, T. & Sun, H. (2020). Flora of the Dzhizak Province, Uzbekistan: 1-523. China Forestry Publishing House.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Meyer, F.K. (2011). Beiträge zur Flora von Albanien. Haussknechtia, Beih. 15: 1-220.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Nowak, A. & Nobis, M. (eds.) (2020). Illustrated Flora of Tajikistan and adjacent areas 2: 367-766. PAN, Polish academy of sciences.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1. Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae. Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands. Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
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  • Chilton, L. (2010). Plant list for Lesvos, slightly revised 1998-2009: 1-36. Marengo, Hunstanton, England.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
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  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
  • Hultén, E.O.G. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands and westernmost Alaska Peninsula: with notes on the flora of Commander Islands, ed. 2: 1-376. Weinheim : J. Cramer ; New York : Hafner Pub. Co.
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  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand. Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal'nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
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  • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
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  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae. Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0