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Rye (Secale cereale) is an extremely hardy crop and can survive harsh conditions and difficult soils where wheat and barley struggle to grow. Rye is commonly grown in the fields of Northern and Eastern Europe where it can produce a good harvest despite the cold winters and hot dry summers of the region. Rye is considered to be a 'secondary crop' meaning that it first appeared as a weed growing alongside wheat and barley in farmers fields and then was domesticated to become a useful grain.

Secale cereale (rye)

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 2500 - 3000 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual; caespitose. Culms 60-150 cm long; 6-7 -noded. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface, or hirsute. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blades 10-20 cm long; 6-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle pubescent above. Racemes 1; single; bilateral; 5-15 cm long. Rhachis tough; pubescent on surface; ciliate on margins. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Rhachis internodes oblong; 2-3 mm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 12-15 mm long; persistent on plant.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 12-15 mm long; persistent on plant.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume linear; 10-12 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; 1-keeled; keeled all along; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface puberulous. Lower glume apex acuminate; mucronate. Lower glume awn 1-3 mm long. Upper glume linear; 10-12 mm long; 0.6-0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; 1-keeled; keeled all along; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acuminate; mucronate. Upper glume awn 1-3 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate; 14-15(-18) mm long; coriaceous; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma midvein pectinately ciliate. Lemma margins ciliate; hairy above. Lemma apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 20-50 mm long overall; limb scabrous. Palea 0.6-0.7 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; ciliate. Anthers 3; 7 mm long. Ovary with a fleshy appendage below style insertion; pubescent on apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; obovoid; sulcate on hilar side; 8-10 mm long. Embryo 0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, and east tropical. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India and Malesia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: Subarctic, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, and Mexico. South America: western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Triticeae. Fl Iraq.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Rye (Secale cereale) is an extremely hardy crop and can survive harsh conditions and difficult soils where wheat and barley struggle to grow. Rye is commonly grown in the fields of Northern and Eastern Europe where it can produce a good harvest despite the cold winters and hot dry summers of the region. Rye is considered to be a 'secondary crop' meaning that it first appeared as a weed growing alongside wheat and barley in farmers fields and then was domesticated to become a useful grain.

Today the majority of rye is cultivated to make rye bread, also known as pumpernickel, and the rest is used in alcohol production and animal feed. In Turkey, rye is often intercropped with wheat which, in addition to serving as insurance in case the wheat harvest fails, means the two crops can be harvested together to produce a wholesome, tasty flour.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Rye is cultivated in Europe, Africa, temperate Asia, tropical Asia (India and Malesia), Australasia, North America, Central and South America. Rye is especially common in temperate regions, although in the tropics and subtropics some farmers grow rye at high altitudes, for example, in the highlands of East Africa.

Ethiopian rye is successfully grown by some small-scale farmers on the highlands of Arsi although there has been limited success in growing rye in Zambia and Mozambique.

Description

Overview:  Secale cereale  is an annual with stems up to 150 cm long and clumped together at the base.

Leaves: Leaf blades are 10-20 cm long and 5-10 mm wide, sometimes hairless and sometimes covered in short, thin hairs.

Flowers: The inflorescence is composed of racemes (unbranched axes along which the spikelets are arranged) 5-15 mm long. Spikelets (clustered units of flowers and bracts, typical of grasses) are 12-15mm long and comprise two fertile florets. In  Secale cereale the spikelets are solitary, fertile and attached directly to the inflorescence axis. The upper and lower glumes (empty bracts that enclose the florets) are similar in shape and size, both about 12 mm long and papery in texture.

The apical, sterile florets resemble the fertile florets although they are underdeveloped. The flower contains two lodicules (small structures at the base of the stamens). Each flower has three anthers, is 7 mm long and the ovary is a fleshy appendage below the style. 

Fruits: The fruit is a caryopsis (a dry fruit where the fruit wall is attached to the seed) 8-10 mm long.

Uses

Most rye production goes into traditional European rye breads with the remainder going into animal feed and alcohol production.

Pumpernickel bread is a dark, heavy, slightly sweet bread made from coarsely ground rye. Other rye breads are made of varying percentages of rye and wheat flour - the higher the proportion of rye, the darker the loaf. The brand Ryvita is a popular crisp flatbread made from rye that is commonly found in supermarkets in the UK. Rye flour mixed in with maize flour makes a delicious porridge eaten in some parts of Africa and, when finely milled, it can be used to make cake.

Rye grain can be sprouted to make malt for beer. Malt made from rye can be used in a number of alcoholic beverages such as rye whisky in North America and vodka in Poland and Russia.

Another important use of rye is as fodder, particularly in pig husbandry.

Rye straw has a variety of applications, including as feed for cattle, thatching, mulching material, papermaking, packing material and fuel. The starch from the rye grain is used industrially in the production of glue, matches and plastics.

In India and Europe rye is sometimes grown as a host plant for ergot (Claviceps purpurea), which is used medicinally as a treatment against migraine. Rye pollen extracts are also used as a medicine against benign prostatic hyperplasia and are commercially available in Western Europe, Japan, Korea and Argentina.

Currently rye is being investigated as a potential biomass energy crop.

Crop wild relatives of rye

Wild relatives of rye are an important source of genetic diversity for the improvement of rye and other closely-related cereals such as wheat. The crop wild relative  Secale montanum , for example, is tolerant of low temperatures and high levels of soil aluminium and manganese and thus has potential as a gene source to improve other cereals. Current breeding efforts in rye agriculture are seeking to achieve yield improvement, increased protein content, cold tolerance and resistance to rust and ergot.

The Millennium Seed Bank and the Global Crop Diversity Trust are engaged in a ten-year project, called 'Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change'. The project aims to protect, collect and prepare the wild relatives of 29 key food crops, including rye, so that they are available to pre-breeders for the development of new varieties that are more resilient to the effects of climate change.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

The  Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plants worldwide, focusing on those plants which are under threat and those which are of most use in the future. Once seeds have been collected they are dried, packaged and stored at -20°C in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank vault.

Description of seeds:  Average weight of 1,000 seeds = 20.9 g

Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:  One

Seed storage behaviour:  Orthodox (the seeds of this plant can be dried to a low moisture content without significantly reducing their viability which means they are suitable for long-term frozen storage)

Germination testing:  Successful

This species at Kew

The Economic Botany Collection houses a number of artefacts made with rye, among them this brush which has bristles woven out of rye grass. It is used in Germany and other parts of Europe to wash and brush out ovens. 

Distribution
Australia, India, Malaysia, USA
Ecology
Rye grows best in temperate climates. It can survive cold winters and hot summers and can produce a decent yield in difficult soils.
Conservation
Widespread in cultivation.

[KSP]
Use
Food, malting, fodder, fuel, glue making, thatching, mulching, papermaking.

Doubtfully present in:

Saudi Arabia

Native to:

Turkey

Extinct in:

Jawa

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Algeria, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil South, British Columbia, California, Canary Is., Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, District of Columbia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Florida, France, Georgia, Great Britain, Greenland, Gulf of Guinea Is., Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Louisiana, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yukon

English
Rye

Secale cereale L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1968 Furse, P. [8158], Afghanistan K000782852
Jan 1, 1960 Davis [24716], Turkey K000782843
Jan 1, 1960 Davis [D31522], Turkey K000782844
Cowan [1568], Iran K000782847
Price, W.R. [163], Turkey K000782842
Rawi, A. [9184], Iraq K000782846
Cowan [1567], Iran K000782848
Aellen, P. [1910], Iran K000782851
Sencer, H.A. [36], Turkey Secale ancestrale K000782838
Sencer, H.A. [38], Turkey Secale ancestrale K000782837
Sencer, H.A. [37], Turkey Secale ancestrale K000782839
Grossheim, A. [104], Nakhichevan Secale ancestrale K000950622 isolectotype

First published in Sp. Pl.: 84 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 3: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Beentje, H. (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary: an Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Brink, M. & Belay, G. (2006). Cereals and Pulses: Volume 1 of Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. PROTA.
  • Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.
  • Mabberley, D.J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. Third edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2008). Seed Information Database (SID). Version 7.1.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2021). https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.501.2.1 epublication.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 3: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
  • Sumadijaya, A. (2011). An account of the non-bambusoid alien grasses (Poaceae) in Java, one century after first records by Backer Folia Malaysiana 12: 47-68.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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