Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Old World. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for food.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Naturalised in Colombia.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual up to 130 cm high; leaves linear
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle contracted, spike-like, cylindrical, 1–10(–20) cm long, the bristles fulvous, the rhachis tomentellous; bristles 3–12 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets ovate, 1.5–2.5 mm long; lower glume 1/3–1/2 the length of the spikelet; upper glume 1/3–1/2 the length of the spikelet, 3- to 5-nerved; lower floret male or barren; upper lemma rugose to corrugate.
Distribution
S3 tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World.
Note
The annual counterpart of S. sphacelata from which it can be difficult to distinguish if the basal parts are missing. Collected only once in Somalia.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual; caespitose. Culms geniculately ascending; 5-130 cm long. Culm-nodes glabrous. Ligule a ciliolate membrane, or a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 3-30 cm long; 2-10 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 1-10(-20) cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with evident branchlets on axis. Panicle axis pubescent. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; free throughout; 3-12 mm long. Involucral bristles persistent; few; in one whorl; 6-8 in principal whorl; flexible; antrorsely scaberulous; glabrous. Pedicels oblong.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; gibbous; 1.5-3.5 mm long; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; gibbous; 1.5-3.5 mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume orbicular; 0.3-0.7 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 0.4-0.7 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; sulcate; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; dorsally compressed; gibbous; 1.5-3.5 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface rugose, or corrugate. Lemma margins involute. Palea involute; indurate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 0.4 mm long.
Distribution
Europe: central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, and northwestern. North America: western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Caribbean and southern South America.
Reference
Paniceae. FTEA.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

Doubtfully present in:

North European Russi

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Portugal, Primorye, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alberta, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Baltic States, Belgium, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Caroline Is., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Fiji, Florida, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Haiti, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Marcus I., Marianas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Poland, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Samoa, Saskatchewan, Society Is., South Carolina, South Dakota, St.Helena, Sweden, Switzerland, Tennessee, Texas, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming

Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 1991 Pappi, A. [173], Eritrea K000281909 Yes
Jan 1, 1991 Pappi, A. [3069], Eritrea K000281910 Yes
Jul 1, 1985 Hepper, F.N. [3772], Mali K000392244 No
Cuming, H. [551], Philippines K000290269 isotype Yes
Loher, A. [1677], Philippines K000290353 Yes
Cuming, H. [1342], Philippines K000290354 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], India K000245324 isotype Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], India K000245325 isotype Yes
Kurz, W.S. [s.n.], India K000245326 syntype Yes
s.coll. [6527], India K000245327 Unknown type material Yes
Duthie, J. F. [6202], India K000245328 syntype Yes
Wallich, N. [8641], India K000245329 syntype Yes
s.coll. [3384], India K000245330 Unknown type material Yes
Wallich, N. [8641], India K000245461 syntype Yes
Hector, J.M. [527], South Africa K000281848 Yes
Galpin, E.E. [8877], South Africa K000281847 Yes
du Plessis, J.A., South Africa K000281846 Yes
Thonning, P. [344], Ghana K000282035 kleptotype Yes
Thonning, P. [344], Ghana K000282036 kleptotype Yes
Put [4098], Thailand K000621109 No
Put [2589], Thailand K000621110 No
Phloenchit [1301], Thailand K000688227 No
Smitinand, T. [4799-A], Thailand K000688228 No
Heckman, C.W. [131], Thailand K000688233 No
Diallo, D. [288], Mali K000392241 No
Mahmoud, A [8641], India K000885965 Yes
Cope, T.A. [RBG 244], United Kingdom K000914562 Yes
Lazarides, M. [7427], Thailand K000688231 No
Garrett, H.B.G. [176], Thailand K000688224 No
van Beusekom, C.F. [4004], Thailand K000688232 No
Wallich, N. [8641], India K000885964 Yes
Trail, J.W.H. [1260], Brazil K001102934 Yes
Sangkhachand [1353], Thailand K000688225 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [20564], Thailand K000621108 No
Clarke, C.B. [19244], India K000885963 Yes
Smitinand, T. [3595], Thailand K000688226 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [10842], Thailand K000621104 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [12938], Thailand K000621105 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [861], Thailand K000621102 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [16189], Thailand K000621107 No
Sorensen, Th. [4297], Thailand K000688229 No
Put [4229], Thailand K000621112 No
Kloss, C.B. [s.n.], Thailand K000688223 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [10842], Thailand K000621103 No
Put [4345], Thailand K000621113 No
Eiten, G. [10645], Brazil K001102935 Yes
Put [4137], Thailand K000621111 No
Mahmoud, A [8641], India K000885917 Yes
Egler, W.A. [46386], Brazil K001102936 Yes
Floto, F. [7551], Thailand K000688230 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [16189], Thailand K000621106 No
Laegaard, S. [102539], Ecuador K001469808 Yes
Ecuador K001469809 Yes
Ecuador K001469810 Yes
Jun 1, 1960 Davey, J.T. [9], Mali Setaria pallide-fusca K000392245 No
Farrow, R.A. [50], Mali Setaria pallide-fusca K000392243 No
Farrow, R.A. [49], Mali Setaria pallide-fusca K000392242 No

First published in Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2: 891 (1817)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation. Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae. Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia. Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand. Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Morrone, O., Aliscioni, S.S., Veldkamp, J.F., Pensiero, J.F., Zuloaga, F.O. & Kellogg, E.A. (2014). Revision of the Old World species of Setaria (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Systematic Botany Monographs 96: 1-161.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi. Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Schäfer, H. (2021). Flora of the Azores a field guide: 1-445. Margraf Publishers GmbH.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Williams, J.K. (2010). Additions to the Alien vascular flora of Mexico, with comments on the shared species of Texas, Mexico and Belize. Phytoneuron 2010-3: 1-7.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae. Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Not accepted by

  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce). Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170. [Cited as Setaria glauca.]

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation. Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae. Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia. Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Gorchakovskii, P.L. & al. (1994). Opredelitel' sosudistykkhrastenii srednego Urala: 1-524. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes. Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hộ, P.-H. (2000). Câycỏ Việtnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
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