Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia to Central Asia and Indo-China. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has social uses and for food.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean. Elevation range: 0–2500 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Atlántico, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Huila, Norte de Santander, Quindío, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: savanna, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Pasto johnson

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes elongated; scaly. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 50-300 cm long. Culm-nodes pubescent. Leaves cauline. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades 20-90 cm long; 5-40 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open; lanceolate, or pyramidal; 10-55 cm long; 3-25 cm wide. Primary panicle branches whorled at most nodes; moderately divided. Racemes 1.2-2.5 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1-5 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes filiform. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 4.5-6.5 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; 5 -veined; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 4.5-5(-5.5) mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pubescent; base obtuse.
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 4.5-6.5 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; 5 -veined; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 4.5-5(-5.5) mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pubescent; base obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; pallid, or dark brown, or red, or purple, or black; 2-keeled; keeled above. Lower glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Lower glume apex dentate; 3 -fid. Upper glume ovate; coriaceous; without keels. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 0.8 length of spikelet; hyaline; 2 -veined; ciliolate on margins. Fertile lemma elliptic; 2-2.5 mm long; hyaline; 1 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex entire, or dentate; 2 -fid; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 10-16 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn pubescent; hairy on the spiral. Palea present.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; ciliate.
Distribution
Europe: central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Andropogoneae. Fl Pak.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2500 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 2500 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
canutillo, grama china, maicillo, pasto Johnson, pasto ruso, sorgo, sorguillo

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose; clumped loosely. Rhizomes elongated. Culms 200-300 cm long; 5-10 mm diam. Culm-nodes glabrous, or pubescent. Lateral branches lacking, or sparse. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 30-90 cm long; 10-40 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open; ovate, or pyramidal; 25-55 cm long; 10-25 cm wide. Primary panicle branches 4-5 -nate; whorled at most nodes; 10-20 cm long. Panicle branches flexuous. Racemes 1-2.2 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 2-5 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins. Rhachis hairs white, or tawny; 0.5-1 mm long. Rhachis internodes linear; 2-4 mm long. Rhachis internode tip transverse. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; flattened; 2-4 mm long; ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 5-6.5 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; 7-8 -veined; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; subacute; 4-5.5 mm long; 1.5-2.3 mm wide; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse.
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 5-6.5 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; 7-8 -veined; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; subacute; 4-5.5 mm long; 1.5-2.3 mm wide; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; much thinner above; without keels; keel-less except near apex; 8-12 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Lower glume margins ciliolate. Lower glume apex dentate; 3 -fid. Upper glume ovate; coriaceous; much thinner above; without keels; 7 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Upper glume margins scabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 3.5-5 mm long; hyaline; 2 -veined; ciliolate on margins; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 2.5-4 mm long; hyaline; 1 -veined. Lemma margins ciliolate. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; incised 0.2-0.25 of lemma length; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 10-16 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; oblong; fleshy; ciliate. Anthers 3; 2.5-3.5 mm long. Stigmas 2.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
Distribution
Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia.
Reference
Andropogoneae. Snowden 1993.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

[UPB]
Use Medicines
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chad, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., North Caucasus, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Tadzhikistan, Thailand, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya

Introduced into:

Alabama, Albania, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, California, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kansas, Kentucky, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Marianas, Marquesas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Niue, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Rhode I., Romania, Réunion, Sardegna, Senegal, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, South Dakota, Spain, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yugoslavia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Johnson Grass
Spanish
Pasto Johnson.

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 1966 A.N.U. [1581], Philippines K000731284 No
Sep 25, 1951 Mabille, P. [66], Corse K001050205 Yes
Aug 22, 1951 Forskal [s.n.], Egypt K000244589 Yes
Aug 21, 1951 Warion, A. [2286], Algeria K000731257 No
Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [13270], Michoacán K000476339 No
Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [13270], Michoacán K000476340 No
Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [13140], Michoacán K000476341 No
Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [1427], México State K000476343 No
Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [5457], Guerrero K000476338 No
Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [4031], México State K000476344 No
Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [13140], Michoacán K000476342 No
Jul 5, 1934 s.coll. [s.n.] K001050204 Yes
Luetzelburg [12456], Brazil K000004751 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778] K001131621 Yes
Shiu Ying Hu [5634], China K000731260 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778], India K001131624 Yes
Raizada, M.B. [21330], India K000731269 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778] K001131620 Yes
Matthew, K.M. [25337], India K000731268 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778] K001131629 Yes
Roy, G.P. [2751], India K000731267 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778] K001131630 Yes
Mohd, J. [8099], Pakistan K000731262 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778], India K001131623 Yes
Silva, J.M. [1195], Brazil K001068753 Yes
Furese, M. [44813], China K000731259 No
Remanandan, P. [4672], India K000731266 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778], India K001131626 Yes
Filgueiras, T.S. [733], Brazil K001068755 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778] K001131622 Yes
Valls, J.F.M. [11688], Brazil K001068756 Yes
Richards, P. [281216], Zimbabwe K000731363 No
Teixeira, L.O.A. [313], Brazil K001068754 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778], India K001131628 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778], India K001131625 Yes
Nasin, E. [28485], Pakistan K000731263 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778], India K001131627 Yes
Jan 1, 1955 Gamble, J.S. [27139], India Sorghum miliaceum K000245614 holotype Yes

First published in Syn. Pl. 1: 101 (1805)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Baliousis, E. (2014). Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285.
  • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
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  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
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  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
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  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
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  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
  • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
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  • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
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  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
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  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
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Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/