Zea mays L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 971 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Central & SW. Mexico to W. Guatemala. It is an annual and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food and for fuel and food.

Descriptions

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
Preocupación Menor
[CPLC]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
cangil, canguil, capi, capí, choclo, chulpe, granizo, maicillo, maíz, maíz azulito, maíz berrendo, maíz blanco, maíz brisa, maíz cacho de buey, maíz capio, maíz cariaco, maíz cariaco amarillo, maíz cariaco rayado, maíz cariaco rojo, maíz chococito, maíz chócolo, maíz cuba, maíz cucuracho, maíz dientecaballo, maíz guajiro, maíz huevito, maíz javao, maíz lomo bayo amarillo, maíz manteca, maíz minga, maíz negrito, maíz ojo de gallo, maíz pano, maíz piedrecita, maíz piedrita, maíz pira, maíz pochó, maíz pompo, maíz porva, maíz roíta, maíz sangre toro, maíz tacaloa amarillo, maíz tacaloa mojoso, maíz vela amarillo, maíz vela blanco, maíz venezolano, maíz Yucatán, morocho, pira, pisingallo, pito, zara
[UNAL]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/77726273/77726310

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

George R. Proctor (2012). Flora of the Cayman Isands (Second Edition). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Vernacular
CORN, MAIZE
Morphology General Habit
A tall annual, extremely variable in size of plant and character of the pistillate inflorescences
Morphology Leaves
Leaves conspicuously distichous, the blades up to 7 cm broad or more
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences monoecious, the staminate flowers in spike-like racemes, these numerous, forming large spreading panicles terminating the culms; pistillate inflorescences in the axils of the leaves, the spikelets in 8–16 (or even to 30) rows on a thickened, almost woody axis (cob), the whole enclosed in numerous large foliaceous bracts (husks), the long styles (silk) protruding from the top as a silky mass of threads.
Distribution
No specimens have been collected in the Cayman Islands, but it is commonly cultivated. Grown in all tropical and temperate regions; apparently of tropical American origin.
[Cayman]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 3000 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
Native and cultivated in Colombia.
Vernacular
Maiki, mayi.
[UPB]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–3000 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlántico, Bogotá DC, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Guainía, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés, Vichada. Found in Boyacá, Colombia.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), inland rocky areas, desert, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Maiki, Maíz, Mayi
[UPFC]

Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect; 200-300 cm long; with prop roots. Culm-internodes solid. Leaves cauline. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 25-100 cm long; 20-100 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in different inflorescences. Inflorescence composed of racemes; axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Spatheole elliptic; herbaceous. Racemes 1; single; multilateral. Rhachis enlarged into a woody cob. Spikelet packing crowded; regular; 4-11 -rowed. Spikelets sunken; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 2 in the cluster. Male inflorescence terminal; unlike female; of racemes along a central axis. Male spikelets distinct from female. Male spikelet glumes 2; wingless; muticous. Male spikelet lemma 3-5 -veined; muticous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; dorsally compressed; persistent on plant.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; dorsally compressed; persistent on plant.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes similar; reaching apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblate; 1 length of spikelet; scarious; of similar consistency above; without keels; 0 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume margins ciliate. Upper glume oblate; scarious; of similar consistency above; without keels; 0 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume margins ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; membranous; 0 -veined; without midvein; without lateral veins. Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma orbicular; membranous; without keel; 0 -veined.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules absent (female), or 2 (male). Anthers 3. Stigmas 2; terminally exserted; papillose. Styles connate below.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; exposed between gaping lemma and palea at maturity.
sex Male
Male inflorescence terminal; unlike female; of racemes along a central axis. Male spikelets distinct from female. Male spikelet glumes 2; wingless; muticous. Male spikelet lemma 3-5 -veined; muticous.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Andropogoneae. FTA.
[GB]

Uses

Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Food
Food (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Seeds - Used to make flour (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Used to make dolls (Linares et al. 2008).
[UPB]

Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.
[UPFC]

Common Names

English
Dent Corn, Flint Corn, Flint Mix, Flour Corn, Flour Mix, Hopi Sweet Corn, Kokomqao, Maize, Ornamental Corn, Popcorn, Pueblo Red, Sweet Corn, Sweetcorn
Spanish
Maíz.

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of the Cayman Islands

    • Flora of the Cayman Islands
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    • Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/