Calophyllum inophyllum L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 513 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Kenya to Mozambique, W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Pacific. It is a tree and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Aldabra, Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Cook Is., Fiji, Gilbert Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niue, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Seychelles, Solomon Is., South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is.

Introduced into:

Bermuda, Cameroon, Central American Pac, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Florida, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Leeward Is., Line Is., Marquesas, Nicaragua, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is.

Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Bamps, P., Robson, N. & Verdcourt, B. (1978). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Guttiferae: 1-34.
  • Banks, R.C. (ed.) (1982). Wildlife and wildlife habitat of American Samoa 2: 1-151. U.S. Fisch and Wildlife services, Washington.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Balslev, H. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Thailand 14(3): 359-431. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 1-508. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J. (2004). Flore de la Polynésie Française 2: 1-503. IRD editions, Paris.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist. Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific. Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki. Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2. Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kitalong, A.H., DeMeo, R.A. & Holm, T. (2008). Native Trees Palau. A field guide: 1-236.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà Nội : Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp.
  • Meyer, J.-Y. (2017). Guide des plantes de Wallis et Futuna: 1-486. Au vent des iles, editions, Tahiti.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Parham, B.E.V. (1971). The Vegetation of the Tokelau Islands with special reference to the plants of Nukunonu Atoll. New Zealand Journal of Botany 9: 576-609.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati. Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru. Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu. Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 1-508. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist. Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific. Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki. Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2. Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon. Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati. Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru. Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
  • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores. The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
  • Whitmore, T.C. (1966). Guide to the forests of the British Solomon islands: 1-208. Oxford University Press.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu. Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 506 (1921).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 231 (1961).
  • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 275 (1895).
  • Henderson & Wyatt-Smith in Gard. Bull., Singapore 15: 314, fig. 4/A, B (1956).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 241 (1949).
  • L., Sp. Pl. 1: 513 (1753).
  • Perrier, Fl. Madag., Guttif.: 6 (1951).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 163, fig. (1949).
  • Robson in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 394, t. 76 (1961).
  • Stevens in Austral. Journ. Bot. 22: 374 (1974).
  • Warbung in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile B, fig. 15, 18 (1895).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jul 17, 2014 Hawthorne, W.D.et.al. [655], Grenada K001107035 Yes
Jeffrey, C. [492] 22911.000 No
Jowett, M. [9] 48228.000 No
Thompson, S.A. [1485], Cameroon K000105202 No
Etuge, M. [75], Cameroon K000105200 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4841] K001104044 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4841] K001104045 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4841], Myanmar K001104048 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4841] K001104041 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4841] K001104043 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4841], Myanmar K001104047 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4841], Malaysia K001104046 Yes
Thomas, D.W. [2725], Cameroon K000105201 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4841] K001104042 Yes
Fosberg, F.R. [49272], Aldabra Calophyllum inophyllum var. takamaka K000240194 isotype Yes
Fosberg, F. R. [49272] Calophyllum inophyllum var. takamaka K000240195 isotype Yes

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0