Myriophyllum spicatum L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 992 (1753), nom. cons.
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Temp. Old World to Tropical Mountains, Aleutian Islands. It is a hydrosubshrub and grows primarily in the temperate biome.

Descriptions

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Rhizomatous, perennial aquatic herb, stems fragile and upper part of plant often found free-floating, more rarely subterrestrial on wet mud; lower part of the stem bare from the decay of the leaves
Morphology Leaves
Submerged leaves 1.5–3 cm, in whorls of 3 or 4(–6), simple pinnate with (13–)19–37(–47) narrow-linear or filiform segments, + collapsing when removed from water; subterrestrial forms with more rigid segments, as are aerial leaves (if present)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers with ± 0.5 mm, broadly triangular sepals and minute, very early-caducous petals; ovary 4-angled, 4-sulcate, ± 1 mm; styles very short, stigmas strongly recurved, densely papillose Male flowers with 4 calyx teeth distinct, broadly triangular, 0.5 mm or less, ± suffused reddish brown; petals 4, caducous, 1.5–2.5 × 0.4–0.6 mm, deeply concave, purplish-red; stamens 8, ± 4 mm, filaments subequalling anthers Flowers in an interrupted spike, mostly in whorls of 4 in axils of bracts, upper (male) flowers often closer together than lower (female) flowers, 1 or more whorls of hermaphrodite flowers frequently present; bracts ovate, oblong or subrotund, 1.5–2 × 1–1.5 mm, entire or erose-denticulate, with a narrow reddish subcartilaginous margin, only the lowest pectinate and foliaceous; bracteoles 2, similar but paler, smaller (less than 1 mm) and more pronouncedly toothed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit subglobose, ± 3 mm in diameter, separating into 4 oblong-ovoid nutlets; nutlets margined or narrowly winged at angles of rupture, smooth or sparsely verruculose on the dorsal surface, ventral surfaces flat.
Ecology
Shallow water, marshes and permanently wet places; alt.: up to 800 m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Oct.–May.
Distribution
Throughout Europe and SW Asia, east to Afghanistan, Pakistan and N India; throughout N & C. Asia, Sumatra, China and Japan, Egypt, NW Africa, S & Tropical Africa, Macaronesia, Australia, N America.
[FIQ]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/164481/120202935

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Haloragaceae, E. J. Mendes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Aquatic herb, usually submerged, occasionally creeping on to muddy banks; rhizome rooted; stems up to 2 m. long, usually branched.
Morphology Leaves
Submerged leaves pinnatisect, in alternating whorls of (3)4(5), glabrous, ± equalling intemodes; leaf-segments 7–11 on each side, filiform, usually obtuse at apex; stipule-like outgrowths absent or inconspicuous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers unisexual or bisexual in terminal emergent spikes up to 10 cm. long; spikes interrupted with whorls c. 1·5 cm. apart along a 4-angled rhachis; whorls of 4 obovate entire bracts (except the lowest which are pinnatisect or dentate); upper bracts shorter than the flowers; bracteoles broadly ovate to triangular, entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4, c. 3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens (?2)8; anthers c. 2 mm. long; filaments c. 2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas 4, spreading, papillose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit subglobose, c. 3 mm. in diameter, 4-sulcate, usually with 8 longitudinal verrucose ridges or rarely smooth.
[FZ]

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Iraq

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Neotropikey

    • Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0