Family:
Juncaceae Juss.
Genus:
Juncus L.

Juncus effusus L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Northern Hemisphere to W. South America, Rwanda to S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and for fuel and food.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
esparto, junco

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1500 - 3700 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FTEA]

Juncaceae, Susan Carter. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Perennial densely tufted erect herb to 120 cm. high.
Vegetative Multiplication Rhizomes
Rhizome short, internodes scarcely 5 mm. long.
Morphology Stem
Stems to 5 mm. in diameter, leafless, green, finely striated, the sterile ones sharply pointed.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves reduced to 3–6 cataphylls, 1–20 cm. long, straw-coloured to dark purple-brown, with the longer inner 1 or 2 bearing a reduced filiform cylindric deciduous leaf-blade up to 1 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence pseudolateral, many-branched, consisting of 1- and 2-sided cymes, dense or lax, 1.5–8 cm. in diameter, subtended by a cylindric sharply pointed bract up to 30 cm. long, which resembles a continuation of the stem; branches many, from a few mm. up to 5 cm. long, each with a scarious lanceolate bract 2–5 mm. long at its base; flowers on slender 0.5–5 cm. long pedicels; each flower subtended by a bract and 2 bracteoles; bracts triangular, 1–1.5 mm. long, acute, membranous, buff-coloured; bracteoles similar, 1 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth-segments lanceolate, subulate at their apices, green with colourless to brown membranous margins; outer segments 1.75–2.5 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide; inner segments slightly shorter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3; filaments linear, 0.5 mm. long; anthers linear, 0.4– 0.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 3-locular; style very short; stigmas 0.75 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule trigonous, obovoid, 2–2.5 mm. long, shortly apiculate, apex slightly depressed at maturity, shiny, olive to red-brown.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid, about 0.4 mm. long, very shortly apiculate, faintly reticulated, red-brown.
Habitat
In swamps and by streams in upland rain-forest, upland evergreen bushland and grassland; 1350–3100 m.
Distribution
worldwide in temperate regions and mountains and highlands of the tropics K3 K4 T2 T4 T6 U2

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1500–3700 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda,
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC. National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Esparto, Junco

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Alt. 1500 - 3700 m.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

[UPB]
Use Fuel
Fuels (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Other Materials
Stems - Used to make saddle-pads (Linares 1994).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Doubtfully present in:

Ethiopia

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Canary Is., Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Nebraska, Netherlands, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Sicilia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Yugoslavia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Cape Provinces, Colorado, Falkland Is., Hawaii, Irkutsk, Marion-Prince Edward, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Victoria

Spanish
Junco.

Juncus effusus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1981 Miers, J. [4189], Brazil K000836981
Jan 1, 1981 Glaziou [6439], Brazil K000836980
Nov 25, 1963 Collenso, W. [s.n.], New Zealand K000906740 isotype
Jan 1, 1925 s.coll. [10804], Brazil K000836982
Fernald, M.L. [10985], Canada K000906779
Mexia, Y. [5374], Brazil K000836978
Mexia, Y. [5374], Brazil K000836979

First published in Sp. Pl.: 326 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Al-Qura'n, S. (2011). The flora of Jordan: A taxonomical revision of Juncaceae Arnaldoa 18: 33-36.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 17: 1-298. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Gremmen, N.J.M. (1982). The vegetation of the Subantarctic islands Marion and Prince Edward: 1-149. Dr W. Junk publishers. The Hague, Boston, London.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Kirschner, J. & al. (2002). Juncaceae Species Plantarum: Flora of the World 6-8: 1-237, 1-336,1-192. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Nobis, M. & al. (2015). Contributions to the flora of Asian European countries: new national and regional vascular plant records, 3 Acta Botanica Gallica: Botany Letters 162: 103-115.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(4): 1-151. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew's Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Linares, E. (1994). Inventario preliminar de las plantas utilizadas para elaborar artesanías en Colombia. Vniversitas Scientarium. Vol 2: 1-38

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Al-Qura'n, S. (2011). The flora of Jordan: A taxonomical revision of Juncaceae Arnaldoa 18: 33-36.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Gremmen, N.J.M. (1982). The vegetation of the Subantarctic islands Marion and Prince Edward: 1-149. Dr W. Junk publishers. The Hague, Boston, London.
  • Kirschner, J. & al. (2002). Juncaceae Species Plantarum: Flora of the World 6-8: 1-237, 1-336,1-192. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.
  • Nobis, M. & al. (2015). Contributions to the flora of Asian European countries: new national and regional vascular plant records, 3 Acta Botanica Gallica: Botany Letters 162: 103-115.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(4): 1-151. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Buchen. in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV, 36: 135 (1906).
  • Flora of Tropical Africa
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 326 (1753).
  • Weim. in Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 40: 143 (1946).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Castro-Moreno, C. (2019). Línea base de especies en términos de su vocación de conservación y uso sostenible del departamento de Santander-Proyecto Santander BIO.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/