Acanthus polystachyus Delile

First published in F.Caillaud, Voy. Méroé 1: 2 (1826)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Ethiopia to NW. Tanzania. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome.

Distribution

Native to:

Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaïre

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

Classification

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PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Vollesen, K. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae(1): 1-285.

Kew Bulletin

  • Agnew, A. D. Q. & Agnew, S. (1994). Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2. East Africa Natural History Society, Nairobi.
  • Anderson, T. (1863). An Enumeration of the species of Acanthaceae from the Continent of Africa and the adjacent Islands. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 7: 13 - 54.
  • Andrews, F. W. (1956). The flowering plants of the Sudan. Volume 3. Published for the Sudan Government by T. Buncle, Arbroath.
  • Beentje, H. (1994). Kenya trees shrubs and lianas. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi.
  • Blundell, M. (1987). Collins Guide to the Wild Flowers of East Africa. Collins, London.
  • Brenan,J. P. M. & Greenway, P. J. (1949). Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire. No. 5. Tanganyika Territory, Part 2. Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford.
  • Brickell, C. (ed.) (2003). The Royal Horticultural Society A - Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. Vol. 1: A - J. Dorling Kindersley, London.
  • Bullock, A. A. (1934). Enumeration of Plants. In: E.J. Lugard, The Flora of Mount Elgon. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1933: 58 - 106.
  • Burrows, J. (2005). Acanthaceae. In: J. Burrows & C. Willis, Plants of the Nyika Plateau: 48 - 54. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Champluvier, D. (1985). Acanthaceae. In: G. Troupin, Flore du Rwanda Spermatophytes. Vol. III: 422 - 492. Ann. Mus. Roy. Afrique Centrale Tervuren Belg., Sci. Econ.
  • Chiovenda, E. (1940). Plantae novae aut minus notae ex Aethiopia. Atti Reale Accad. Italia, Mem. Cl. Sci. Fis. 11: 17-67.
  • Christensen, C. (1922). Index to Pehr Forsskål: Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica 1775, with a revision of Herbarium Forsskålii. Dansk Bot. Arkiv 4, 3: 1 - 54.
  • Clarke, C. B. (1899 - 1900). Acanthaceae. In: W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Flora of Tropical Africa 5: 1 - 262 8c 506 - 515. L. Reeve & Co., London.
  • Cufodontis, G. (1964). Enumerado Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Sequentia). Bull. Jard. Bot. État. 34, Suppl: 925 - 978.
  • Dale, I. R. & Greenway, P. J. (1961). Kenya trees and shrubs. Buchanan's Kenya Estates, Nairobi.
  • De Wildeman, E. (1910). Études de systématiques et de Géographie Botaniques sur la Flore du Bas- et du Moyen-Congo. Ann. Mus. Congo Belge. Bot., Ser. 5, 3: 1 - 533.
  • Delile, A. R. (1826). Centurie de plantes d'Afrique du voyage à Méroé recueillies par M. Cailliaud. Paris.
  • Edwards, S. (1976). Some wild flowering plants of Ethiopia: an introduction. Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa.
  • Enayet Hossain, A. B. M. (1982). Acanthaceae. In: P. H. Davis, Flora of Turkey, Vol. 7: 23 - 27. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Engler, A. (1892). Über die Hochgebirgsflora des tropischen Afrika. Abh. Akad. Berlin.
  • Fichtl, R. & Admasu, A. (1994). Honeybee Flora of Ethiopia. Margraf Verlag, Weikersheim.
  • Fiori, A. (1940). Plantae a Dominico Saccardo in regionibus Galla et Sidama Abyssiniae collectae. Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 47: 24 - 46.
  • Forsskål, P. (1775). Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica. Möller, Copenhagen.
  • Friis, I. & Vollesen, K. B. (2005). Flora of the Sudan- Uganda border area east of the Nile. II. Catalogue of vascular plants, 2nd part, vegetation and phytogeography. Biol. Skr. 51 (2): 390 - 855.
  • Glover, P. E. (1946). A provisional check-list of British and Italian Somaliland trees, shrubs and herbs. Published on behalf of the Govt. of Somaliland by Crown Agents for the Colonies.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants, vol. 1, part 1. MIM bvba, Antwerp.
  • Hepper, F. N., Jaeger, P. M. L., Gillett, J. B. & Gilbert, M. G. (1981). Annotated Check-list of the Plants of Mount Kulal, Kenya. IPAL Technical Report Number D - 3. Nairobi.
  • Heywood, V. H. & Richardson, L B. K. (1972). Acanthaceae. In: T. G. Tu tin et al., Flora Europaea, Vol. 3: 283 - 284. Cambridge University Press.
  • Huxley, A, Griffiths, M. & Levy, M. (eds.) (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening, 1: A to C. Macmillan Press, London.
  • Kuchar, P. (1986). The plants of Somalia: an overview and checklist. CRDP Techn. Rep. Ser. 16: 1 - 335. Mogadishu, Somalia.
  • Lebrun J.-P. & Stork. A. L. (1997). Enumeration des plantes à fleurs d'Afrique Tropicale. Vol. IV - Gamopétales: Clethraceae à Lamiaceae. Conservatoire & Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Génève. Génève.
  • Lindau, G. (1894). Acanthaceae Africanae. II. In: A. Engler, Beiträge zur Flora von Afrika. IX. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 20: 1 - 76.
  • Lwanga, J. (1996). Trees and shrubs. In: T. Davenport & P. Howard, Biodiversity Report No. 14, Agoro- Agu and Lokung Forest Reserves: 17 - 35. Kampala.
  • Meeuse, A. D. J. (1958). Acanthus pubescens. Fl. Pl. Africa 32: t. 1268.
  • Moquin-Tandon, A. (1832). Considérations sur les irregularities de la Corolle dans les Dicotylédones. Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) Ser I, 27: 225 - 290.
  • Napper, D. M. (1970). Notes on Acanthaceae 1. Some tropical African Acanthoideae and Nelsonioideae. Kew Bull. 24: 323 - 342.
  • Nees ab Esenbeck, C. G. (1847). Acanthaceae. In: A. de Candolle, Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis 11: 46 - 519. Fortin, Masson, Paris.
  • Oliver, D. (1875). The Botany of the Speke and Grant expedition. Trans. Linn. Soc. London 29: 1 - 190.
  • Pichi Sermolli, R. (1951). Missione di studio al Lago Tana. Vol. 7, 1. Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Roma.
  • Richard, A. (1850). Tentamen florae Abyssinicae . Vol. 2. Arthus Bertrand, Paris.
  • Robyns, W. (1947). Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert. II. Sympétales. Brussels.
  • Ruffo, C. K., Chilonga, S. B. & Mabula, C. K. (1996). Catalogue of Lushoto Herbarium Tanzania. Tanzania Forestry Research Institute & Tanzania National Tree Seed Programme, Morogoro.
  • Schwartz, O. (1939). Flora des tropischen Arabien. Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 10: 1 - 393.
  • Schweinfurth, G. (1867). Beitrag zur Flora Aethiopiens. Part 1. G. Reimer, Berlin.
  • Thulin, M. (2006). Acanthaceae. In: M. Thulin, Flora of Somalia 3: 374 - 454. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tui rill, W. B. (1913). Acanthus pubescens and A. arboreus. Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1913: 336 - 338.
  • Vahl, M. (1790). Symbolae Botanicae. Vol. 1. N. Möller & f., Copenhagen.
  • Vivero, J. L., Ensermu Kelbessa & Sebsebe Demissew (2005). The Red List of Endemic Trees & Shrubs of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge.
  • Wood, J. R. I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • — & Friis, I. (1994). The plants of Pehr Forsskål's Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew in association with the Botanical Museum, Copenhagen.
  • — (1895). Acanthaceae. In: A. Engler, Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete. Theil C: 365 - 374. Berlin.
  • — (1904). Über die Vegetationsverhältnisse des Somali-Landes. Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl., Abt. 1, 10: 355 - 416.
  • — (1906). Acanthus ugandensis. In: O. Stapf, Plantae Novae Daweana in Uganda lectae. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 37: 527 - 528.
  • — (1912). Acanthaceae. In: J. Mildbraed, Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1907-1908. Band II. Botanik: 291 - 310. Leipzig.
  • — (1913). Études sur le Flore du Congo. Ann. Mus. Congo Belge. Bot., Ser. 4, 2(1): 1 - 180.
  • — (1914). Decades Novarum Specierum Florae Congolensis II. Bull. Jard. Bot. État. 4: 361 - 429.
  • — (1916). Acanthaceae. In: R. E. Fries, Wissen- schaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Rhodesia -Kongo-Expedition 1911-1912. Band I. Botanische Untersuchungen. Heft 2. Monocotyledones und Sympetalae: 302 - 309. Aftonbladets Druckerei, Stockholm.
  • — (1921). Contribution a l'etude de la Flore du Katanga. D. Reynaert, Brussels.
  • — (1926). Plantae Bequaertianae. Vol. 4. Fasc. 1. A. Buyens, Gand & J. Lechevelier, Paris.
  • — (1965a). Systematische Bearbeitung der in Süd- Athiopien gesammelten Pflanzen. 5. Teil. Senckenbergiana Biol. 46: 89 - 106.
  • — (1965b). Beitrag zur Flora von Godjam. 2. Teil. Senckenbergiana Biol. 46: 115 - 120.
  • — (2000). Blepharis (Acanthaceae) A taxonomic revision. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • — (2006). A taxonomic revision of the genus Duosperma (Acanthaceae). Kew Bull. 61: 289 - 351.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Cent. Pl. Méroé: 72, t. 62, f. 2 (1826)
  • E.P.A.: 953 (1964)
  • F.E.E. 5: 357 (2006)
  • K.B. 62: 241 (2007).
  • Lebrun & Stork, Énum. Pl. Afr. Trop. 4: 466 (1997)
  • Pichi Sermolli, Miss. Lago Tana 7,1: 140 (1951)
  • Senck. Biol. 46: 117 (1965)

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Codrington Ethiopia K:SPC-25935.000 No
Schimper [1532] Ethiopia K000394428 Unknown Type Material Yes
Jan 1, 2000 Dawe [237] Uganda Acanthus pubescens K000394423 Syntype Yes
Jan 1, 2000 Elliott, C.F. [s.n.] Uganda Acanthus pubescens K000394424 Type Yes
Jan 1, 2000 James, E. [s.n.] Uganda Acanthus pubescens K000394425 Type Yes
Jan 1, 2000 Speke; Grant [136] Tanzania Acanthus pubescens K000394422 Holotype Yes

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Bulletin

    • Kew Bulletin
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images