Genus:
Melissa L.

Melissa officinalis L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Medit. to Central Asia. It is used as a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and for food.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1200–2800 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, Santander, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1200 - 2800 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
samuda negra, toronjil

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1200 - 2800 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[FTEA]

Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb 0.3–1 m tall
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate, ovate, 20–80 × 15–60 mm, crenate-dentate, cordate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence lax with 5–10-flowered verticils remote
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 7–9 mm long, campanulate, 2-lipped; posterior lip flat with 3 small teeth, anterior lip with 2 longer teeth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pale yellow becoming pinkish white, 13–15 mm long, 2-lipped
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, ascending under posterior lip.
Note
No specimens seen.

[UPFC]
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Food Unspecified Food Type
Food (State of the World's Plants 2016, Granados-Tochoy et al. 2007).
Use Medicines Circulatory System Disorders
Leaves - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Infections & Infestations
Leaves and stems - Used in liquid medicines as a relaxant and as a sedative (Lagos-López 2007, Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Mental Disorders
Leaves and stems - Used in liquid medicines as a relaxant and as a sedative (Lagos-López 2007, Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Pain
Used in medicines to alleviate pain (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).

[FTEA]
Use
A native of South Europe to Central Asia widely cultivated as a culinary and medicinal herb

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Bulgaria, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., France, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Morocco, North Caucasus, Palestine, Portugal, Sardegna, Sicilia, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Belgium, British Columbia, California, Canary Is., Chile Central, Connecticut, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Ireland, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Krym, Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Netherlands, New Jersey, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Poland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, South Carolina, South European Russi, Sweden, Switzerland, Tennessee, Ukraine, Uruguay, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia

Spanish
Toronjil, toronjina, cedron, cidronella, melisa, limonera.

Melissa officinalis L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Cope, T.A. [RBG 180], United Kingdom K000914345

First published in Sp. Pl.: 592 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Adolphy, K. & al. (2021). Beiträge zur Flora Nordhein-Westfalens aus dem Jahr 2020 Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins 12: 199-278.
  • Arbo, M.M. & al. (2018). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 20(1): 1-488. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 12: 1-650. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac
  • Granados-Tochoy, J. C., Lastra-Romero, C. A., Correa-Casas, M., & Monsalve, D. (2007). Estudio florístico de la agrobiodiversidad del municipio de Garagoa (Valle de Tenza, Boyacá, Colombia). Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Lagos-López, M. (2007). Estudio etnobotánico de especies vegetales con propiedades medicinales en seis municipios de Boyacá, Colombia. Actualidades Biológicas, 29(86), 87-96.
  • Toscano-González, J. Y. (2006). Uso tradicional de plantas medicinales en la vereda San Isidro, municipio de San José de Pare-Boyacá: Un estudio preliminar usando técnicas cuantitativas. Acta Biológica Colombiana, 11(2), 137-146.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Jex-Blake, Gard. E. Afr., ed. 4: 266 (1957)
  • K.H.S., Gard. E. Afr.: 170 (1995)

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Allen, D., Bilz, M., Leaman, D.J., Miller, R.M., Timoshyna, A., & Window, J. (2014). European Red List of medicinal plants. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg 10:907382.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Garcia, H. (1992). Flora Medicinal de Colombia. Botánica Médica. Segunda Edición. Tercer Mundo Editores. Tomo III.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/