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This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa and Sri Lanka.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[KBu]

Suddee, S., A. J. Paton, & Parnell, J. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of Tribe Ocimeae Dumort. (Lamiaceae) in Continental South East Asia III. Ociminae. Kew Bulletin, 60(1), 3-75. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4110885

Distribution
Africa, Arabia, India, Sri Lanka and Burma.
Ecology
In sandy soil in open places.
Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs, usually more than 30 cm tall
Morphology Leaves
Leaves narrowly obovate-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate, 20 - 45 x 7 - 15 mm, apex obtuse or acute, base cuneate or attenuate, margin entire or obscurely serrate, sessile glands prominent on both sides, glabrous or with short hairs restricted on main and secondary veins above, hispidly hairy beneath; petiole to 5 mm long, pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens twice as long as corolla; posterior slightly thicked near base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, 4.5 mm long at anthesis, 7 - 8 mm long in fruit; posterior lip rounded, decurrent on tube, slightly recurved, apiculate at apex; anterior lip with 2 median bristle- like teeth, subequal to posterior, lateral teeth lacking, replaced by a row of many minute teeth with white hairs; throat open; tube pubescent with sessile glands outside, glabrous inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pinkish-white, 10 - 12 mm long; lobes obtuse, pubescent with sessile glands on back; posterior lip 4-lobed; anterior lip entire, slightly concave; tube straight, pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets light brown, ovoid-orbicular, 1.2 - 1.5 mm in diameter, smooth, producing mucilage when wet.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence lax, verticils up to 16 mm apart, axis hispidly hairy; bracts sessile, lanceolate, 5 - 6 x 1.5 - 2.5 mm, apex acute, margin entire, pubescent with sessile glands on both sides, each bract subtending 3 flowers, usually present as an apical coma at the top of the inflorescence, early caducous, leaving a prominent circular persistent gland at base; pedicels c. 1 mm long, 2 - 2.5 mm long in fruits, pubescent
Morphology Stem
Stems simple, quadrangular or round-quadrangular, antrose hispidly hairy with scattered sessile glands, usually with young shoots in the axil of leaves forming a false whorl
Note
For Ocimum cristatum Roxb, Roxburgh's illustration no. 312 is also original material, but it does not show characters as clearly as the specimen in K-W.
Type
Yemen, Mt Melhen, Feb. 1763, Herb. Forssk. no. 324 [holotype C! (microfiche I.D.C. 2200, 71 11, 7 - 8)].

[FTEA]

Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Type
Type: Yemen, Mt Melhan, Forsskål 324 (C, holo. microfiche!)
Morphology General Habit
Perennial or annual woody herb with few stems arising from ground, usually lacking a woody rootstock but this sometimes present, 15–130 cm tall, variously reported as aromatic or not
Morphology Stem
Stems erect or ascending, rounded-quadrangular, branching above, often woody at base with epidermis sometimes peeling in strips, pubescent with retrorse and patent hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually spreading or slightly ascending, sometimes with fascicles of young leaves in axils; blade linear or narrowly ovate to obovate, sometimes folded along midrib on drying, 1–4(–5) × 0.3–2 cm, entire or serrate, apex rounded to obtuse, rarely acute, base cuneate, pubescent or sparsely pubescent, glandular-punctate; petioles 2–10 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence lax, with 6-flowered verticils up to 20 mm apart; bracts brownish, linear or spathulate, 3–10 mm long, erect above forming an apical coma, soon deciduous, the scar forming a bowl-shaped nectary; pedicels 2 mm long, spreading, slightly flattened
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3–4 mm long at anthesis, pubescent and with sessile glands; posterior lip sometimes purplish, obovate, obtuse or mucronate; lateral lobes of anterior lip truncate, often ciliate; fruiting calyx 5–8 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, cream, yellowish or pink, 7–13 mm; tube 4–8 mm long, straight or very slightly curved, usually gradually, but sometimes appearing more abruptly dilating towards throat due to pressing, sometimes slightly dorsally gibbous; lobes of posterior lip entire or more rarely denticulate; anterior lip horizontal, cucullate around filaments
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens exserted 10–15 mm from corolla throat
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets pale brown, obovoid, 1.5 mm long, smooth, producing mucilage when wet
Ecology
Open Brachystegia woodland, Combretum or Acacia-Commiphora or coastal bushland, grassland, on sandy or black cotton soil; 900–1950 m, down to 20 m in K 7 and T 6
Conservation
Least concern
Note
This species is most likely to be confused with O. obovatum subsp. obovatum from which it can usually be distinguished by the entire lobes of the corolla posterior lip and longer petioles, however the posterior lobes of the corolla are occasionally denticulate. It usually also differs in being a woody herb with fewer stems arising from the ground rather than many-stemmed from a thick woody rootstock, however some of the more woody specimens of O. filamentosum possess a rootstock. The corolla of O. filamentosum dilates gradually towards the throat rather than abruptly. This character is difficult to observe from herbarium specimens, but it may link O. filamentosum to O. minutiflorum and O. angustifolium rather than to O. obovatum.
Distribution
Range: Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, India, Sri Lanka, Burma Flora districts: U1 K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T5 T6 T7

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Subshrub, perennial or annual herb, usually with only one stem, 0.15–1 m tall, with simple hairs only
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; blade lanceolate, elliptic, narrowly ovate or narrowly obovate, up to 10–50 × 3– 20 mm, apex rounded to acute, base cuneate, margin serrate or subentire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence ± lax; bracts early deciduous with the scars forming ± dark bowl-like glands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Fruiting calyx
Fruiting calyx 5–9 mm long, closed by the lateral lobes pressing together, with a ventral constriction in the tube; upper lobe 3.5–5 mm broad, narrowly cuneate at the base; lateral lobes with the posterior margin extended, ± arcuate, ± ciliate, often with a few small teeth near apex; lower lobes subulate, separated from the lateral lobes by a very shallow sinus
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 8–13 mm long, white or rarely pale reddish or lilac
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Anterior stamens 5–12 mm longer than the lower lip of the corolla; anthers with parallel thecae
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets c. 1.5–1.6 × 1.1–1.3 mm, smooth, pale brown, producing mucilage when wet.
Distribution
N1–3; C1, 2, S1–3 Arabian peninsula, India to Sri Lanka and Myanmar, and widespread from Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti and Ethiopia to southern Africa and Angola.
Ecology
Altitude range 10–1350 m.
Note
The material from dunes near Mogadishu differs from other Somali O. filamentosum by having broader leaves, and may resemble O. obovatum by appearing to be almost herbaceous with the woody parts of the stems often buried in sand. O. obovatum differs from O. filamentosum by having an abruptly widened corolla-tube and dentate lobes of the upper lip of the corolla.

Native to:

Angola, Botswana, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe

Ocimum filamentosum Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2008 Friedberg [125], Ethiopia K000248320
Jan 1, 2008 Friedberg [112], Ethiopia K000248321
Jan 1, 2008 Friedberg [112A], Ethiopia K000248322
Sep 1, 2007 Kayombo [3529], Tanzania K000248150
Oct 1, 2006 Gereau, R.E. et al. [6856], Tanzania K000247519
Oct 1, 2006 Kindeketa, W.J. et al. [2719], Tanzania K000247517
Schimper, M.W. [221], Ethiopia K000347072
Schimper [387], South Africa K000347138 Unknown type material
Wakefield, T [s.n.], Kenya K000347052 syntype
Schimper, W. [2303], Ethiopia K000347073
Gossweiler, J. [207], Angola K001008884
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2719] Ocimum adscendens K001116927
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2719] Ocimum adscendens K001116929
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2719] Ocimum adscendens K001116928
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2744] Plectranthus menthoides K001116998 Unknown type material

First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 108 (1775)

Accepted by

  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Suddee, S., Paton, A.J. & Parnell, J.A.N. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of the tribe Ocimeae Dumort (Lamiaceae) in continental South East Asia III. Ociminae Kew Bulletin 60: 3-75.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by O. Ryding [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 108 (1775)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 341 (2006)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 341 (2006).
  • Holm & Hiltunen, Ocimum: 30 (1999)
  • Holm & Hiltunen, Ocimum: 30 (1999)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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