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This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical Africa.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca Acanthaceae (part 2) by Iain Darbyshire, Kaj Vollesen and Ensermu Kelbessa

Morphology General Habit
Spiny shrub or perennial herb 45–250 cm tall; stems buff- or yellowish-strigose with interspersed shorter spreading hairs when young.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves subsessile, rather fleshy, (oblong-)elliptic, obovate or suborbicular, 0.7–4.5 × 0.4–1.6 cm, base cuneate or subattenuate to obtuse, margin revolute when young, apex obtuse, rounded or rarely acute, with a short spine-tip or apiculum, upper surface with coarse subspreading to subappressed hairs, lower surface strigulose on veins with numerous spreading whitish hairs elsewhere, at least when young; lateral veins 3–6 pairs, prominent beneath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence axillary and/or subterminal, 1–3-flowered, subsessile; bracteoles spinose, 5–18 × 0.5–2.5 mm, straight or curved, conduplicate or triangular in cross-section, margin entire, pairs sometimes persisting at lower nodes as paired axillary spines.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx often purplish towards apex and on veins when young, turning pale-scarious; outer lobes subequal, broadly ovate to elliptic or obovate, 10.5–23 × 5–16 mm, base rounded or cordate to cuneate or attenuate, margin denticulate to spinulose-dentate, rarely subentire, apex obtuse to attenuate in outline, ± spine-tipped, anterior lobe rarely emarginate, surfaces sparsely strigulose and with scattered minute stalked glands; lateral lobes lanceolate-attenuate, 3–8.5 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla (22.5)25–38.5 mm long, blue, mauve or white, glandular-pilose externally or largely glabrous; tube 15–23.5 mm long, funnel-shaped above attachment point of stamens; limb in 2+3 arrangement; abaxial and lateral lobes 9–18 × 8–16.5 mm; adaxial lobes 6–15 × 4–10 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens attached 6–12 mm from base of corolla tube; filaments 12–24 mm long; anthers 3–5 mm long; lateral staminodes 0.7–3.7 mm long, with minute stalked glands and often pilose, antherodes to 1.4 mm or barely developed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous; style with declinate straight hairs at base; stigma linear, 1–2 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule (11.5)14.5–17 mm long, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Only immature seeds seen.

[KBu]

Darbyshire, I., Tripp, E.A. & Chase, F.M. (2019). A taxonomic revision of Acanthaceae tribe Barlerieae in Angola and Namibia. Part 1. Kew Bulletin 74: 5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-018-9791-0

Morphology General Habit
Spiny shrub or perennial herb, 45 – 250 cm tall; stems buff- or yellowish-strigose with interspersed shorter spreading hairs when young
Morphology Leaves
Leaves subsessile, rather fleshy, (oblong-) elliptic, obovate or suborbicular, 0.7 – 4.5 × 0.4 – 1.8 cm (l:w ratio 1.2 – 3.6:1), base cuneate or subattenuate to obtuse, margin entire, revolute when young, apex obtuse, rounded or rarely acute, with a short spine-tip or apiculum, upper surface with coarse subspreading to subappressed hairs, lower surface strigulose on the veins and with numerous spreading whitish hairs elsewhere at least when young; lateral veins 3 – 6 pairs, prominent beneath
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted 6 – 12 mm from base of corolla tube; filaments 12 – 24 mm long; anthers 3 – 5 mm long; lateral staminodes 0.7 – 3.7 mm long, with minute stalked glands and often pilose, antherodes to 1.4 mm long or barely developed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx often purplish towards apex and on veins when young, later turning pale-scarious; anterior and posterior lobes subequal, broadly ovate to elliptic or obovate, 10.5 – 23 × 5 – 16 mm, base rounded or cordate to cuneate or attenuate, margin denticulate to spinulose-dentate, more rarely subentire, apex obtuse to attenuate in outline, ± spine-tipped, anterior lobe rarely emarginate, surfaces sparsely strigulose and with scattered minute stalked glands; lateral lobes lanceolate-attenuate, 3 – 8.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla (22.5 –) 25 – 38.5 mm long, blue, mauve or white, glandular-pilose externally or largely glabrous; tube 15 – 23.5 mm long, funnel-shaped above attachment point of stamens; limb in “2+3” configuration; abaxial lobe orbicular or obovate, 9 – 16 × 8 – 16.5 mm, apex rounded or emarginated; lateral lobes as abaxial lobe but sometimes more elliptic, up to 18 × 15.5 mm, apex sometimes subattenuate; adaxial lobes elliptic, 6 – 15 × 4 – 10 mm, apex rounded or often acute to subattenuate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous; style with declinate straight hairs at base; stigma linear, 1 – 2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 4-seeded, (11.5 –) 14.5 – 17 mm long, glabrous; only immature seeds seen.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary and/or subterminal, 1 – 3-flowered, subsessile; bracteoles spinose, 5 – 18 × 0.5 – 2.5 mm, straight or curved, conduplicate or triangular in cross section, margin entire, pairs sometimes persisting at lower nodes as paired axillary spines
Type
Zimbabwe, South African Goldfields, fl. 1870, Baines s.n. (holotype K! [K000394567]).

Native to:

Angola, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Barleria crassa C.B.Clarke appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Feb 27, 1897 Baines, T. [s.n.], Zimbabwe K000394567 Unknown type material

First published in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 151 (1899)

Accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Tripp, E.A. & Chase, F.M. (2019). A taxonomic revision of Acanthaceae tribe Barlerieae in Angola and Namibia. Part 1 Kew Bulletin 74(5): 1-85. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2010). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae (Part 2): 287-756.
  • Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2015). Flora Zambesiaca 8(6): 1-314. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Not accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as Barleria ramulosa.]

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • (1899: 151); Klopper et al. (2006: 4); Darbyshire (2010b: 339; 2015: 53).
  • Balarin, M. G., Brink, E. & Glen, H. F. (1999). Itinerary and specimen list of M. A. Pocock’s botanical collecting expedition in Zambia and Angola in 1925. Bothalia 29: 169 – 201.
  • Clarke, C. B. (1899). Barleria. In: I. H. Burkill & C. B. Clarke (1899 – 1900), Acanthaceae. In: W. T. Thiselton-Dyer (ed.), Flora of Tropical Africa 5: 140 – 169. L. Reeve & Co., London.
  • Darbyshire, I. & Luke, Q. (2016). Barleria mirabilis (Acanthaceae): a remarkable new tree species from west Tanzania. Kew Bull. 17: 13 (6 pages).
  • Darbyshire, I. (2010a). The Barleria fulvostellata (Acanthaceae) complex in east Africa. Kew Bull. 64: 673 – 679.
  • Darbyshire, I. (2010b). Barleria. In: H. J. Beentje (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Acanthaceae, pp. 325 – 442. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darbyshire, I. (2015). Barleria. In: J. R. Timberlake & E. S. Martins (eds), Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8 (6): 37 – 122. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Klopper, R. R., Chatelain, C., Bänninger, V., Habashi, C., Steyn, H. M., de Wet, B. C., Arnold, T. H., Gautier, L., Smith, G. E. & Spichiger, R. (2006). Checklist of the flowering plants of sub-Saharan Africa. An index of accepted names and synonyms. South African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 42, SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Moore, S. le (1930). Mr John Gossweiler’s plants from Angola and Portuguese Congo. Acanthaceae. J. Bot. 68, Suppl. II: 126 – 139.
  • Obermeyer, A. A. (1933). A revision of the South African species of Barleria. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 15: 123 – 180.
  • White, F. (1983). Vegetation of Africa. A Descriptive Memoir to Accompany the UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO Vegetation Map of Africa. UNESCO, Paris.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • in F.T.A. 5: 151 (1899).
  • —Darbyshire in F.T.E.A., Acanthaceae 2: 339 (2010).
  • —Tredgold & Biegel, Zimb. Wild Fl.: 52, pl.35 (1996).
  • —White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 381 (1962).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2015). Flora Zambesiaca 8(6): 1-314. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0