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This species is accepted, and its native range is N. & Central Namibia.

[KBu]

Darbyshire, I., Tripp, E.A. & Chase, F.M. (2019). A taxonomic revision of Acanthaceae tribe Barlerieae in Angola and Namibia. Part 1. Kew Bulletin 74: 5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-018-9791-0

Conservation
This species is widespread and locally frequent in northern Namibia, with an EOO of 182,557 km2. It is recorded from numerous localities, and appears to be frequent in Etosha National Park. Although some populations may suffer from overgrazing/browsing due to overstocking of domestic livestock and wild herbivores, it is not considered to be globally threatened and is assessed as of Least Concern — LC.
Distribution
Endemic to northern and central Namibia (Erongo, Kavango East, Khomas, Kunene, Omusati, Oshikoto & Otjozondjupa regions).
Ecology
Barleria kaloxytona has been recorded from a wide variety of dry open habitats including open Acacia and Acacia-Catophractes-Dichrostachys bushland, thicket and dwarf shrubland on sandy soils, grassland and open scrub on calcareous soils, and damp roadside depressions on clay; at 1100 – 1500 m elevation. It occurs primarily in the Western Highlands, Western Kalahari and Karstveld vegetation types, just extending into the North-eastern Kalahari Woodlands vegetation type of Mendelsohn et al. (2002).
Morphology General Habit
Spiny suffrutex or compact shrublet, 5 – 50 cm tall, branches erect or ascending from a woody base; stems markedly 4-angular, internodes glabrous or minutely puberulent on two opposite sides between the ridges, nodal line strigose
Morphology General Spines
Axillary spines present or rarely absent, (greenish-) white, 2 – 4-rayed, stalk 0 – 1.5 mm long, longest ray 2 – 14 mm long
Morphology Leaves
Leaves often held ± erect at least towards apex of stems, sessile or petiole to 7 mm long; blade bright green, somewhat coriaceous, narrowly oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate, 1.8 – 8.5 × 0.6 – 2.3 cm (l:w ratio: (2.2 –) 2.6 – 4.8: 1), base cuneate or attenuate, margin entire, apex acute to rounded, mucronate, surfaces glabrous or sparsely strigulose on margin and midrib beneath; lateral veins 3 – 6 pairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted 6.5 – 8.5 mm from base of corolla tube; filaments 14 – 16 mm long, pubescent; anthers 2.2 – 3.5 mm long; lateral staminodes 1 – 1.5 mm long, pilose, antherodes 0.7 – 1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx green or whitish-green, anterior lobe lanceolate, 10 – 16 × 3.5 – 6 mm, posterior lobe somewhat longer, 12 – 19 mm long; both with apices ± attenuate and spinose, anterior lobe often bifidly so, margin entire, venation parallel, prominent in fruit but often only 2 (anterior) or 1 (posterior) main vein prominent in flower, external surfaces glabrous or rarely with few minute hairs on veins and margin towards apex; lateral lobes linear-lanceolate, 9 – 16.5 mm long, usually with sparse hairs towards apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla (pale) yellow to pale orange or apricot-coloured, 26 – 41 mm long, shortly pubescent externally; tube cylindrical, 10.5 – 15 × 2.5 mm; limb in “4+1” configuration; abaxial lobe offset by 6.5 – 9.5 mm, narrowly oblong or oblong-obovate, 8 – 13.5 × 3 – 6 mm, apex rounded, usually with a minute acumen; lateral lobes obovate, 11 – 20 × 7 – 11 mm, apices acute, attenuate or rounded with a short acumen; adaxial lobes as lateral lobes but narrower, 5.5 – 10 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Pistil glabrous; stigma linear, 1 – 1.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 16 – 18 mm long, glabrous; seeds 8 – 10 × 6 – 7.5 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary but sometimes clustered towards stem apices to form loose leafy spikes; flowers solitary at each axil, subsessile; bracts foliaceous but reduced distally, uppermost pairs typically 13 – 19 × 3 – 5 mm; bracteoles green with paler margin and midrib or more rarely whitish-green, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 8 – 16 (– 21) × 1.3 – 3 (– 4) mm, margin entire, apex spinose, glabrous
Note
This species replaces Barleria coriacea in northern Namibia, from which it is easily separated by the largely glabrous vegetative parts even when young, the greener bracteoles and calyces, the hairy corolla limb and the abaxial corolla lobe being clearly smaller than, not subequal to, the remaining lobes. The leaves are a rather vivid green which also helps to separate it from other species in sect. Prionitis.
Type
Namibia, Omburo, fl. & fr. 2 Feb. 1900, Dinter 1399 (lectotype B!, selected here; photo. at K). Additional original syntype: Namibia, Etiro, Feb. 1900, Dinter 1443 (B?†).

Native to:

Namibia

Barleria kaloxytona Lindau appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 43: 354 (1909)

Accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Tripp, E.A. & Chase, F.M. (2019). A taxonomic revision of Acanthaceae tribe Barlerieae in Angola and Namibia. Part 1 Kew Bulletin 74(5): 1-85. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Craven, P. (ed.) (1999). A checklist of Namibian plant species. South African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 7, SABONET, Windhoek.
  • Darbyshire, I., Tripp, E. A. & Dexter, K. G. (2012). A new species and a revised record in Namibian Barleria (Acanthaceae). Kew Bull. 67: 759 – 766.
  • Dinter, K. (1918). Index der aus Deutsch-Südwestafrika bis zum jahre 1917 bekannt gewordenen pflanzenarten. II. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 15: 340 – 355.
  • Klaassen, E. & Kwembeya, E. (eds) (2013). A checklist of Namibian indigenous and naturalised plants. Occasional Contributions No. 5, National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
  • Klopper, R. R., Chatelain, C., Bänninger, V., Habashi, C., Steyn, H. M., de Wet, B. C., Arnold, T. H., Gautier, L., Smith, G. E. & Spichiger, R. (2006). Checklist of the flowering plants of sub-Saharan Africa. An index of accepted names and synonyms. South African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 42, SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Lindau, G. (1909). Acanthaceae africanae. VIII. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 43: 349 – 358.
  • Meyer, P. G. (1957). Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Acanthaceen Südwestafrikas. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 2: 368 – 385.
  • Meyer, P. G. (1968). 130. Acanthaceae. In H. Merxmüller (ed.), Prodromus einer Flora von Südwestafrika. J. Cramer, Germany.
  • Obermeyer, A. A. (1933). A revision of the South African species of Barleria. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 15: 123 – 180.
  • Welman, W. G. (2003). Acanthaceae. In: G. Germishuizen & N. L. Meyer (eds), Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 92 – 106. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Darbyshire, I., Tripp, E.A. & Chase, F.M. (2019). A taxonomic revision of Acanthaceae tribe Barlerieae in Angola and Namibia. Part 1 Kew Bulletin 74(5): 1-85. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0