Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical & S. Africa.
Barleria senensis Klotzsch

[KBu]

Darbyshire, I., Tripp, E.A. & Chase, F.M. (2019). A taxonomic revision of Acanthaceae tribe Barlerieae in Angola and Namibia. Part 1. Kew Bulletin 74: 5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-018-9791-0

Conservation
Barleria senensis is a widespread and common species of southern tropical Africa. Although the complete EOO has not been calculated, it is known to be in excess of 1.5 million km2. Collections data indicate that it is tolerant of some habitat disturbance including grazing pressure. It is not considered to be threatened and is assessed as of Least Concern — LC.
Distribution
Southeastern Angola (Cuando Cubango Prov.), northern Namibia (Erongo, Kavango East, Kunene, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshikoto and Otjozondjupa regions); widespread in southern Africa: Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa (Limpopo & Mpumalanga Provinces.)
Ecology
Barleria senensis is recorded from a variety of habitats on sandy soils, most commonly in open to dense bushland, woodland and scrub of variously Acacia, Boscia, Burkea, Colophospermum mopane and Terminalia. It sometimes occurs along riverbanks or dry riverbeds (more commonly so in the eastern part of its range than in our area). It is tolerant of disturbance and is sometimes recorded in overgrazed or disturbed sites including roadsides. It occurs at 1050 – 1550 m elevation. It is a widespread species of southern tropical Africa associated primarily with the Zambesian Regional Centre of Endemism of White (1983). In Namibia, it occurs in the Western Highlands, Thornbush Shrubland, Karstveld, North-eastern Kalahari Woodland and Northern Kalahari vegetation types of Mendelsohn et al. (2002).
Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb or shrub, erect or straggling, 25 – 150 (– 300) cm tall; stems at first 4-angular, later subterete, glabrous or uppermost internodes minutely puberulous on two opposite sides
Morphology General Spines
Axillary spines small, often sparse, sometimes absent, 4 (– 6)-rayed, stalk to 1.5 mm long, longest ray 1.5 – 7.5 mm long
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sometimes immature at flowering, sessile or petiole to 10 mm long; mature blade elliptic (-lanceolate) or somewhat obovate, 4 – 14 × 1 – 6 cm (l:w ratio 1.9 – 3.5 (–4) : 1), base cuneate or attenuate, margin entire, apex acute or attenuate, apiculate, leaf buds densely pale-strigose but mature leaves soon glabrescent except along margin and midrib beneath; lateral veins 4 – 5 pairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted 7 – 11 mm from base of corolla tube; filaments 12 – 20 mm long, shortly pubescent in proximal half to two thirds; anthers 2.5 – 3.5 mm long; lateral staminodes 0.5 – 1.5 mm long, pilose, antherodes 0.6 – 1.1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes green with paler margins, later turning whitish-green;, anterior and posterior lobes lanceolate, 7 – 12.5 × 2.5 – 4 mm, margin entire, apex acute or attenuate, mucronate, anterior lobe sometimes notched, with few short eglandular and glandular hairs towards apex, sometimes with longer ascending hairs along margin, venation inconspicuous; lateral lobes somewhat narrower
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, orange, apricot or ochre, 23 – 36 mm long, pubescent externally, limb with mixed eglandular and glandular hairs; tube 9 – 15.5 mm long; limb in “4+1” configuration; abaxial lobe offset by 4 – 9 mm, obovate or elliptic, 8.5 – 13.5 × 5.5 – 8.5 mm, apex rounded or obtuse; lateral lobes as abaxial lobe but 10 – 15 × 6 – 9 mm, apices often acute; adaxial lobes 9.5 – 14 × 5.5 – 8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Pistil glabrous; stigma linear, 0.6 – 1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 12 – 17 mm long, glabrous; seeds 7.5 – 9 × 4.5 – 6 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences contracted spikes or heads 1.5 – 8 cm long terminating main and short lateral branches, sometimes with additional flowers in distal leaf axils, each cymule of the spike 1 (– 3)-flowered; bracts often white in proximal half, green above and along main veins, or green throughout, obovate to broadly spathulate, 7.5 – 16 × 3.5 – 12.5 mm, apex rounded, truncate or emarginate then shortly attenuate into a mucro, main veins and margin of distal half strigose, margin of proximal half usually with spreading, bulbous-based hairs, surface with short (rarely subsessile) glandular hairs in distal half, sometimes with interspersed finer short eglandular hairs, few broad sessile glands usually present towards base; bracteoles white with green midrib or more rarely green with pale margin, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, (5.5 –) 7.5 – 14 × 1 – 2 mm, mucronate, margin entire
Note
Barleria senensis is easily identified by the terminal flowering spike with obovate to spathulate imbricate bracts which enclose the basal portion of the flowers. In much of its range, the bracts have a white portion towards the base and also have characteristic bulbous-based hairs along the margin. However, the bracts in populations in the southwest of its range often lack the conspicuous white portion and can have less prominently bulbous-based hairs along the margin. This form was previously separated as B. eenii; however, the variation is clearly clinal and cannot be readily separated into distinct taxa. Makholela (2008: 22) cited the type specimen as being from Angola, but Rios de Sena is in Mozambique.
Type
Mozambique, Rios de Sena, fl., without precise date (1842 – 1846), Peters s.n. (lectotype B! [B 10 0190529], selected by Darbyshire, l.c.; isolectotypes B! [B 10 0190528, B 10 0190530]).

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca Acanthaceae (part 2) by Iain Darbyshire, Kaj Vollesen and Ensermu Kelbessa

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb or shrub 30–150(300) cm tall, erect or straggling; stems glabrous or uppermost internodes minutely puberulous on opposite sides.
Morphology General Spines
Axillary spines small, often sparse, rarely absent, 4(6)-rayed, stalk to 1.5 mm long, longest ray 1.5–7.5 mm long.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sometimes immature at flowering; mature blade elliptic(-lanceolate) or ± obovate, 4–14 × 1–6 cm, base cuneate or attenuate, apex acute or attenuate, apiculate, leaf buds densely pale-strigose but soon glabrescent except along margin and midrib beneath; petiole 0–10 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a congested head or spike 1.5–8 cm long terminating main and short lateral branches, sometimes with additional flowers in upper leaf axils, each cymule 1(3)-flowered; bracts usually white in proximal half, green above and along main veins, rarely green throughout, obovate to broadly spathulate, 7.5–16 × 3.5–12.5 mm, apex rounded, truncate or emarginate then shortly attenuate into a mucro, main veins and margin of distal half strigose, margin of proximal half usually with spreading, bulbous-based hairs, surface with short (rarely subsessile) glandular hairs in distal half, sometimes with interspersed finer short eglandular hairs, few broad sessile glands usually present towards base; bracteoles white with green midrib, rarely green with pale margin, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, (5.5)7.5–14 × 1–2 mm, mucronate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes green with paler margins, later turning whitish-green, outer lobes lanceolate, 7–12.5 × 2.5–4 mm, apex acute or attenuate, mucronate, anterior lobe sometimes notched, with a few short eglandular and glandular hairs towards apex, sometimes longer ascending hairs along margin, elsewhere glabrous, venation inconspicuous; lateral lobes somewhat narrower.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 23–36 mm long, yellow, orange, apricot or ochre-coloured, pubescent externally, limb with mixed eglandular and glandular hairs; tube 9–15.5 mm long; limb in 4+1 arrangement; abaxial lobe 8.5–13.5 × 5.5–8.5 mm, offset by 4–9 mm; lateral lobes 10–15 × 6–9 mm; adaxial lobes 9.5–14 × 5.5–8 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens with filaments 12–20 mm long, shortly pubescent in proximal half; anthers 2.5–3.5 mm; lateral staminodes 0.5–1.5 mm, pilose, antherodes 0.6–1.1 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous; stigma linear, 0.6–1 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 12–17 mm long, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 7.5–9 × 4.5–6 mm.
Distribution
Also in SE Angola, Namibia and NE South Africa (Limpopo, Mpumalanga).
Ecology
Various types of dry woodland (Acacia, mopane), thicket and fallow, typically on sand, common on shaded riverbanks; 100–1000 m.
Conservation
Conservation notes: Widespread and common; Least Concern.

Native to:

Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Barleria senensis Klotzsch appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Sep 22, 1951 Lugard, E.J. [5a], Botswana K000394571 holotype
Greenway, P.J. [7962], Zambia 3640.000

First published in W.C.H.Peters, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 6(1): 209 (1861)

Accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Tripp, E.A. & Chase, F.M. (2019). A taxonomic revision of Acanthaceae tribe Barlerieae in Angola and Namibia. Part 1 Kew Bulletin 74(5): 1-85. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2015). Flora Zambesiaca 8(6): 1-314. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Balkwill, M. J. & Balkwill, K. (1997). Delimitation and infra-generic classification of Barleria (Acanthaceae). Kew Bull. 52: 535 – 573.
  • Brown, N. E. (1909). List of plants collected in Ngamiland and the northern part of the Kalahari Desert. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew: 89 – 146.
  • Burke, A. (2005). Wild flowers of the northern Namib. Namibia Scientific Society, Windhoek.
  • Clarke, C. B. (1899). Barleria. In: I. H. Burkill & C. B. Clarke (1899 – 1900), Acanthaceae. In: W. T. Thiselton-Dyer (ed.), Flora of Tropical Africa 5: 140 – 169. L. Reeve & Co., London.
  • Dinter, K. (1918). Index der aus Deutsch-Südwestafrika bis zum jahre 1917 bekannt gewordenen pflanzenarten. II. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 15: 340 – 355.
  • Klotzsch, J. F. (1861). Acanthaceae. In: W. C. H. Peters, Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossambique. VI: Botanik, pp. 140 – 169. G. Reimer, Berlin.
  • Lindau, G. (1909). Acanthaceae africanae. VIII. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 43: 349 – 358.
  • Lindau, G. (1920). Acanthaceae africanae. X. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 57: 20 – 24.
  • Mendelsohn, J., Jarvis, A., Roberts, C. & Robertson, T. (2002). Atlas of Namibia. A portrait of the land and its people. Ministry of Environment & Tourism and David Philip, Cape Town.
  • Meyer, P. G. (1957). Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Acanthaceen Südwestafrikas. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 2: 368 – 385.
  • Meyer, P. G. (1968). 130. Acanthaceae. In H. Merxmüller (ed.), Prodromus einer Flora von Südwestafrika. J. Cramer, Germany.
  • Moore, S. le (1907). Alabastra Diversa. Part XV. 1. New or rare Acanthaceae from German South-West Africa. J. Bot. 45: 226 – 233.
  • Obermeyer, A. A. (1933). A revision of the South African species of Barleria. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 15: 123 – 180.
  • White, F. (1983). Vegetation of Africa. A Descriptive Memoir to Accompany the UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO Vegetation Map of Africa. UNESCO, Paris.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • in Peters, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 6(1): 209 (1861).
  • —Clarke in F.T.A. 5: 146 (1899).
  • —Fabian & Germishuizen, Wild Fl. Nthn. S. Afr.: 396, pl.190e, 191f (1997).
  • —Meyer in Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW Afr. 130: 17 (1968).
  • —Moriarty, Wild Fl. Malawi: 85, pl.43 (1975).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2015). Flora Zambesiaca 8(6): 1-314. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/