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This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Arabian Peninsula to Indo-China, Hainan.
Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.) Roth.

[FTEA]

Acanthaceae (part 1), Kaj Vollesen, Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2008

Morphology General Habit
Suberect, procumbent or scrambling perennial (rarely annual) herb (rarely a suberect or trailing subshrub); stems up to 2 m long, sometimes rooting at nodes, pubescent to pilose or sparsely so or sericeous, sometimes only in a single band (rarely subglabrous).
Morphology Leaves
Leaves often paler beneath; lamina elliptic (rarely ovate or slightly obovate), largest 2–9(–12.5) × 0.8–3.5(–5) cm, margin entire or distantly toothed, hispid-puberulous to pubescent or sparsely so, often densest on veins (rarely subglabrous).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spikes solitary or in clusters of up to 11, dispersed whole when mature; bracts greenish to yellowish brown, sometimes with purple veins, elliptic-obovate to orbicular, subglabrous to puberulous or pubescent (rarely densely so), terminating in a recurved bristle and on each side with 4–10 retrorsely barbed and finely glochidiate bristles 1–5 mm long; lower pair 2–8 mm long, second pair 4–12 mm long, third pair 5–12(–14) mm long, inner pair 6–13(–16) mm long; bracteoles absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals puberulous or sparsely so (rarely pubescent or sparsely pilose) and ciliate, colour as bracts; dorsal ovate-elliptic, 9–22(–25) mm long, narrowing gradually to the acute to rounded apex; ventral similar, 8–20 mm long, with two small apical teeth; lateral 5–10(–12) mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or cream with purple veins, 12–27(–30) mm long of which the tube 4–8 mm, callus with one (rarely 3) inconspicuous (rarely distinct) apical flange; hairs on upper surface of limb strongly bent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 2–9 mm long, sparsely glandular (rarely hairy); appendage 0.5–1 mm long, broadly rounded; anthers 2–4 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 5–7 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed ± 4.5 × 3 mm.
Figures
Fig. 17.
Distribution
Range: Widespread in tropical Africa and through Arabia to India and Thailand Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Flora districts: Z P Range: Widespread in tropical Africa and through Arabia to India and Thailand Range: Uganda. Range: Kenya. Range: Tanzania.
Ecology
A wide range of grassland, bushland, woodland and forest habitats, also commonly in disturbed and secondary vegetation and ruderal; 0–1850 m
Note
Napper in K.B. 24: 323 (1970) divides the East African material of this widespread, often semi-weedy species, into two subspecies and one of these into two varieties: subsp. maderaspatensis var. maderaspatensis with small (12–18 mm long) corolla and upper sepal twice as long as longest bracts occurs along the coast while var. abyssinica with large (20–27 mm long) corolla occurs inland in Uganda and W Tanzania. Most of the collections from here are intermediate between all the above taxa with a large variation in corolla length combined with an upper sepal which is usually 1/2–2/3 longer than the longest bracts. Closer examination of the East African material also shows that there are intermediate collections. Subsp. rubiifolia with included or slightly exserted upper sepal and small (11–18 mm long) corolla occurs inland all over East Africa. If we also consider the Indian material the picture becomes much less clear. Most material from T 5 & 7 – which ought to be subsp. rubiifolia – have somewhat exserted upper sepal and corolla up to 22 mm long (e.g. Bidgood et al. 1063, Greenway & Polhill 11521, Lovett et al. 1949). Examination of the material from southern tropical Africa shows a large variation in length of the upper sepal with most material ± intermediate between the two subspecies. See also Vollesen, l.c. for a detailed discussion of the variation in this species. Some specimens from upland K 4 are also intermediate between the two subspecies and between the varieties of subsp. maderaspatensis (e.g. Hucks 203, Mungai et al. 291A). Adamson 590 from Kenya, Northern Frontier District: Melka Ioni is a trailing subshrub with very large sepals and corolla (maximum dimensions in text). Gillett 12827 from Moyale has similarly large flowers and also very large inner bracts (maximum dimension in text). These collections seem to be but extreme forms.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Usually procumbent or ascending perennial or rarely annual herb, or sometimes a subshrub
Morphology Stem
Stems up to 2 m long, sometimes rooting at the nodes, puberulous to pilose
Morphology Leaves
Leaves lanceolate to ovate or elliptic or slightly obovate, 1–10(–15) x 0.3–4(–5) cm, subglabrous to ± densely pubescent, margin entire or toothed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spikes solitary or clustered, falling off at maturity; bracts in 4 pairs, elliptic-obovate to orbicular, subglabrous to pubescent, ending in a recurved bristle and on each side with 4–10 bristles (0.5–)1–7 mm long, all bristles with short usually deflexed hairs, the inner pair of bracts 6–13(–16) mm long, the other pairs shorter; bracteoles absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx puberulous and ciliate, the upper lobe 9–25 mm long, with acute to rounded tip, the lower lobe 8–20 mm long, usually with 2 small teeth at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or cream with mauve or purple veins, 10–27(–30) mm long; tube 3–8 mm long; limb 4–13 mm wide.
Distribution
N1, 2; C2; S2, 3 widespread in tropical Africa and Madagascar, on the Arabian Peninsula, and from Pakistan eastwards to China.
Ecology
Altitude range 170–1300 m.
Vernacular
Selagabaar (Somali).

[FWTA]

Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Suffrutescent herb, usually procumbent,
Morphology General Indumentum
Coarsely pubescent on the young parts
Morphology Leaves
Whorled leaves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
White flowers 1/2 in. long in short finely-spiny spikes
Ecology
A weed of roadsides, waste places and forest margins in savanna.

Native to:

Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.) B.Heyne ex Roth appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1997 Teague, A.J. [426], Zimbabwe K000394256 isotype
Jan 1, 1997 Schimper [1492], Ethiopia K000394271 isotype
Jan 1, 1997 Ehrenberg, C.G. [s.n.], Ethiopia K000394272 isotype
Drummond, R.B. [2930], Tanzania 13064.000
Faulkner, H. [795], Tanzania 17151.000
Gossweiler, J. [8307], Angola K001009428
Gossweiler, J. [103], Angola K001009421
Baum, H. [773], Angola K001009420
Welwitsch [5054], Angola K001009423
Welwitsch [5129], Angola K001009422
Henriques, C. [983], Angola K001009418
Pearson, H.H.W. [2039], Angola K001009426
Monteiro [s.n.], Angola K001009424
Pearson, H.H.W. [2696], Angola K001009425
Gossweiler, J. [298], Angola K001009419
Pearson, H.H.W. [2736], Angola K001009427

First published in Nov. Pl. Sp.: 320 (1821)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Daniel, T.F. (2014). Taxonomy of Anisotes Nees (Acanthaceae: Justicieae) in the Comoros archipelago and a preliminary list of Acanthaceae in the islands Candollea 69: 45-54.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Malik, K.A. & Ghafoor, A. (1988). Flora of Pakistan 188: 1-79. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Vollesen, K. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae(1): 1-285.
  • Vollesen, K. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(5): 1-184. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 62.
  • Nov. Pl. Sp. Ind. Or. 320 (1821)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Ann. Transv. Mus. 19: 132 (1937)
  • Biol. Skr. 51(2): 438 (2005)
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 389, pl. 602 (1987)
  • E.P.A.: 952 (1964), excl. syn. Ruellia ciliaris
  • F.E.E. 5: 363 (2006)
  • F.P.N.A. 2: 289 (1947)
  • F.P.S. 3: 171 (1956)
  • F.P.U.: 142 (1962)
  • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 410 (1963)
  • Fl. Rwanda 3: 441 (1985)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 384 (2006).
  • K.B. 24: 323 (1970)
  • Lebrun & Stork, Enum. Pl. Afr. Trop. 4: 473 (1997)
  • Nov. Pl. Sp. Ind. Or.: 320 (1821)
  • Ruffo et al.,Cat. Lushoto Herb. Tanzania: 3 (1996)
  • Serengeti Res. Inst. Publ. No. 215: 25 (1976)
  • Symb. Bot. Ups. 29(3): 160 (1991)
  • T.T.C.L.: 5 (1949)
  • U.K.W.F.: 579 (1974)
  • Vollesen, Blepharis: 198 (2000)

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
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Kew Science Photographs
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Plants and People Africa
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