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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Madagascar.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FWTA]

Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Like the last (Brillantaisia lamium) but in W. Africa usually with whitish flowers 1-1 1/4 in. long in a spike with glandular hairs.

[FTEA]

Acanthaceae (part 2), Kaj Vollesen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Type
Type: Madagascar, Betsileo, Nandihizana, Hildebrandt 3901 (B†, holo.; BM!, P!, iso.)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a spiciform raceme, 4–19(–28) cm long, interrupted basally, confluent towards apex, axes puberulous to densely pubescent with broad curly many-celled hairs, towards apex with stalked glands; primary bracts green or purplish, ovate-elliptic, from leaf-size to 8 × 5 mm near apex, glabrous to puberulous and pilose-ciliate; secondary bracts ovate to elliptic or obovate or broadly so, up to 17 × 12 mm; pedicels 0.5–3 mm long, puberulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments and style white, stigma purple; anthers pale grey to black, 3–5 mm long; staminodes filiform, puberulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule (15–)18–28 mm long, the valves 3–5 mm wide, glandular-puberulous and ± scattered long eglandular hairs Capsule linear-oblong, rounded or flattened, valves sulcate dorsally; retinaculae slender, curved (rarely conical and straight)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed 2–3 mm long Seeds (4–)8–over 40, discoid, obliquely ovoid or orbicular, with dense hygroscopic hairs.
Ecology
Wet montane forest, often along paths, in clearings or along streams, swamp forest, streambanks; 850–1800 m Usually in wet habitats with several truly aquatic species, and also with some rheophytic species.
Morphology General Habit
Erect to procumbent annual or perennial herbs, with usually conspicuous linear cystoliths Perennial herb to 1.5(–2) m tall, but often flowering from 20 cm tall; stems often creeping and rooting in basal part, apical part erect, puberulous to pubescent or sparsely so
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, sessile or subsessile, usually entire Leaves with petiole up to 14 cm long, upper often sessile; lamina ovate or broadly so (rarely elliptic or cordiform), largest 7–27 × 3–15 cm, apex acute to acuminate or drawn out into an acute or obtuse tip, base cuneate to truncate, margin entire to crenate-dentate, subglabrous to pubescent with broad glossy hairs, densest on veins and lamina often glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in lax axillary cymes, these often congested into ± dense axillary clusters and these again into compound spike-like inflorescences; bracts various; bracteoles 2, linear to lanceolate, or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx ± deeply divided into 5 sepals (rarely 4 by fusion of the two ventral sepals); sepals similar or dorsal often larger Calyx green or purplish, puberulous, with scattered pilose hairs and with sparse to dense stalked capitate glands; lobes linear-lanceolate, tapering or dorsal slightly spathulate, ventral and lateral 9–23 mm long, dorsal 11–27 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla contorted in bud, 2-lipped (rarely subactinomorphic); tube usually cylindric in basal part and widened into an apical pouch; upper lip 2-lobed, shorter than lower, forming a ± distinct hood; lower lip 3-lobed, plicate-rugose (“herring-boned”) at base, usually with two large orange spots and usually with long stiff hairs. Stamens 4 (rarely 2 with dorsal reduced to staminodes or 2 without trace of staminodes), didynamous (dorsal pair smaller), held under upper lip (rarely included in tube); filaments of dorsal and ventral stamen of each pair united at base; anthers 2-thecous, oblong, muticous, those of ventral pair slightly larger, usually hairy on connective Corolla blue to dark blue, mauve to purple or lilac, upper lip often paler and lower darker towards base, 25–48 mm long, with many-celled purple hairs; tube white to pale violet, 7–13 mm long; lower lip 15–35 mm long, lobes ovate, 3–8 mm long, middle widest
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-locular, with 4 to over 40 ovules per locule (rarely 2); disk inconspicuous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style filiform, usually hairy throughout, dorsal lobe of stigma minute, ventral linear (rarely both lobes developed)
Note
About 100 species in all tropical regions.
Distribution
Flora districts: T2 T3 T4 K5 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 Range: Guinea, Liberia, Bioko, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, CongoKinshasa, Sudan, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, Madagascar

Native to:

Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

Brillantaisia madagascariensis T.Anderson ex Lindau appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 1, 2012 Antilahimena, P. et al. [1376], Madagascar K000662462
Apr 1, 2012 Nusbaumer, L. et al. [2384], Madagascar K000662298
Apr 1, 2012 Razanajatovo, M.H. et al. [MHR 103], Madagascar K000662299
Apr 1, 2012 Antilahimena, P. [2603], Madagascar K000823757
Nov 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [1037], Cameroon K000746031
Jan 1, 1991 Holst, C. [4216], Tanzania K000393845 syntype
Jan 1, 1991 Holst, C. [3316], Tanzania K000393846 syntype
Greenway [12, 107], Tanzania 28727.000
Dawkins, H.C. [762], Uganda 4216.000
Birkinshaw, C. [1669], Madagascar K000662607

First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 17: 103 (1893)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Vollesen, K. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae(1): 1-285.
  • Vollesen, K. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(5): 1-184. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Benoist in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 60: 334
  • Chev. Bot. 493.
  • F.T.A. 5: 43
  • in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 17: 103 (1893)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Adansonia 11: 656 (1971)
  • Biol. Skr. 51(2): 439 (2005)
  • Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. London 28: 104 (1998)
  • DC., Prodr. 11: 85 (1847)
  • E. & P. Pf. IV, 3b: 296 (1895)
  • E.J. 17: 103 (1893)
  • E.P.A.: 930 (1964)
  • F.E.E. 5: 372 (2006).
  • F.T.A. 5: 30 (1899)
  • F.T.A. 5: 43 (1899)
  • F.W.T.A. 2: 254 (1931)
  • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 406 (1963)
  • Fl. Madag., Acanthacées 1: 29 (1967)
  • Fl. Rwanda 3: 445 (1985)
  • G.P. 2: 1075 (1876)
  • K.B. 16: 171 (1962)
  • Lebrun & Stork, Enum. Pl. Afr. Trop. 4: 475 (1997)
  • Nord. J. Bot. 9: 261 (1989)
  • Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 479 (1810)
  • Symb. Bot. Ups. 29(3): 160 (1991)
  • Synnott, Checklist Budongo Forest Reserve (C. F. I. Occ. Papers 27): 68 (1985)
  • T.T.C.L.: 5 (1949)
  • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 267 (1994)
  • U.K.W.F.: 583 (1974)

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0