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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FTEA]

Acanthaceae (part 2), Kaj Vollesen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Type
Type: Nigeria, Benin, Agathon, Palisot de Beauvois s.n. (P, holo.)
Morphology General Habit
Perennial or shrubby herb, usually glandular and sticky; stems up to 2 m tall, erect or rooting at base, glabrous to crisped-puberulous, sometimes also with long pilose hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with petiole up to 14(–17) cm long; lamina ovate-cordiform or broadly so, largest 11–28 × 6–20 cm, apex acuminate, sometimes drawn out into a short obtuse tip, base cuneate to cordate, margin regularly to irregularly and sometimes grossly crenate-dentate (rarely subentire), glabrous to densely crisped-puberulous on veins, glabrous to sparsely puberulous on lamina
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle from very lax to narrow and contracted, (5–)10–45 cm long, finely puberulous and with usually dense broad glandular hairs, often also with long pilose hairs; primary bracts green to purplish, ovate to elliptic or obovate, from leaf-size to 10 × 3 mm near apex, finely puberulous and with long pilose hairs, towards apex with stalked capitate glands; secondary bracts lanceolate to elliptic, 5–18 × 2–5 mm; pedicels 0.5–7(–11) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx dark purple, with dense capitate glands, ± puberulous hairs and ± scattered pilose hairs; lobes linear-lanceolate, tapering gradually to distinctly spathulate, ventral and lateral (8–)12–19 mm long, dorsal (10–)14–21 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pale to deep mauve, pale to deep purple or blue to dark blue with white throat, (25–)30–53 mm long, with purple to dark purple glandular hairs; tube 7–14 mm long; lower lip 20–38 mm long, lobes 2–5 mm long, ovate, subacute (lateral) or rounded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments and style white; anthers black, (5–)6–9(–11) mm long, hairy along connective; staminodes filiform, 10–15 mm long, widened apically
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule (17–)20–35 mm long, the valves 2–3 mm wide, glandular-puberulous and usually with longer non-glandular hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed ± 1.5 mm long
Ecology
Wet lowland and montane forest, often along streams or in damp places, riverine and swamp forest, riverbanks; (750–)900–1850 m
Note
Forms with very open inflorescences and very large flowers have traditionally been separated out as B. patula, but again they merge into typical forms. See also note under B. lamium. There seems no way of separating the multitude of forms which have been united under this species. This is the most widespread species in Brillantaisia and also by far the most variable. It especially seems to have an enormous range of leaf-shapes and -dentations, and these have been widely used to separate species. But over the total range of the species they all merge together. B. owariensis has been grown as an ornamental in Nairobi and occasionally within its natural range in Uganda.
Distribution
Range: Widespread in the forest regions of West and Central Africa, east to SE Sudan and south to N Angola Flora districts: T1 T2 T3 T4 K3 K5 T1 T4

[FWTA]

Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Erect up to 10-12 ft. high
Morphology Stem
Stems glandular-pubescent at first, later glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Purple flowers 1-1 1/2 in. long.

[FWTA]

Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A stout plant up to 6-10 ft. high, sometimes several inches in circumference at base of stem
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Comparatively large violet-purple flowers, the upper lip yellowish and purple-spotted.

[FWTA]

Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Herbaceous perennial up to 6-8 ft. high, densely tomentose and glandular-pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Blue purple flowers nearly 2 in. long.

[FWTA]

Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology Stem
Stems up to 9 ft. high, glandular-pubescent becoming glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Blue-purple flowers 1 1/2-2 in. long.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Jamaica

Brillantaisia owariensis P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [8282], Cameroon K000518858
Mar 1, 2008 Harvey, Y.B. [311], Cameroon K000541186
Nov 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [1020], Cameroon K000746034
Nov 1, 2003 Tadjouteu, F. [403], Cameroon K000746035
Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [10470], Cameroon K000746033
Jun 1, 2003 Manning, S.D. [1045], Cameroon K000029247
Jan 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [437], Cameroon K000109460
Jan 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [331], Cameroon K000109449
Jan 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [352], Cameroon K000190203
Jan 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1617], Cameroon K000109452
Jan 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [436], Cameroon K000109463
Jan 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [434], Cameroon K000109461
Jan 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [4027], Cameroon K000109470
Jan 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [8916], Cameroon K000109465
Jan 1, 2002 Onana, J.-M. [556 A], Cameroon K000109466
Jan 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [3960], Cameroon K000109467
Jan 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [352], Cameroon K000109462
Jan 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [423], Cameroon K000109456
Jan 1, 2001 Ghogue, J.-P. [5], Cameroon K000109464
Dec 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [315], Cameroon K000339082
Aug 1, 1999 Buzgo, M. [623], Cameroon K000339077
Jul 1, 1999 Munyenyembe, P. [841], Cameroon K000339078
Jul 1, 1999 Cheek, M. [8665], Cameroon K000339084
Jul 1, 1999 Cheek, M. [8570], Cameroon K000339079
Jul 1, 1999 Etuge, M. [3383], Cameroon K000339081
Jan 1, 1999 Buzgo, M. [779], Cameroon K000339083
May 1, 1998 Brunt, M.A. [167], Cameroon K000029243
Jan 1, 1998 Acworth, J.M. [116], Cameroon K000011848
Jan 1, 1996 Etuge, M. [1437], Cameroon K000197524
Dec 1, 1995 Cable, S. [704], Cameroon K000011265
Dec 1, 1995 Cable, S. [1244], Cameroon K000011267
Jan 1, 1995 Gereau, R.E. [5657], Cameroon K000029249
Jan 1, 1995 Cable, S. [1328], Cameroon K000011266
Jan 1, 1993 Sidwell, K. [98], Cameroon K000518899
Jan 1, 1993 Thomas, D.W. [9222], Cameroon K000011277
Aug 1, 1992 Cable, S. [638], Cameroon K000109469
Jan 1, 1991 Mahon [s.n.], Uganda K000393849 holotype
Jan 1, 1991 Speke [583], Uganda K000393850 holotype
Jan 1, 1991 Scott Elliot, G.F. [6999], Kenya K000393848 holotype
Jan 1, 1990 Manning, S.D. [1049], Cameroon K000029252
Jan 1, 1989 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9245], Cameroon K000029226
Jan 1, 1989 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8994], Cameroon K000029225
Jan 1, 1987 Thomas, D.W. [4381], Cameroon K000029250
Welwitsch [5182], Angola K000393841 Unknown type material
Zenker [520], Cameroon K000393855 isotype
[Trenp] [847], Cameroon K000393856 isotype
Smith, C. [s.n.], Congo K000393857 Unknown type material
Scott Elliot, G.F. [3990a], Sierra Leone K000393870 Unknown type material
[Unknown] [4717], Sierra Leone K000393871 Unknown type material
Sierra Leone K000393872
Dalziel, J.M. [8186], Cameroon K000029214
Maitland, T.D. [199], Cameroon K000029217
Bauer, P.J. [140], Cameroon K000029229
Brunt, M.A. [82], Cameroon K000029234
Boughey, A.S. [GC 11188], Cameroon K000029237
Hutchinson, J. [122], Cameroon K000029218
Sanford, W.W. [5437], Cameroon K000029223
Dunlap [25], Cameroon K000029215
Gossweiler, J. [1048], Angola K001009171
Dent Young, J. [195], Nigeria K000393869
Etuge, M. [442], Cameroon K000029244
Thomas, D.W. [2952], Cameroon K000029251
Mambo, P. [272], Cameroon K000029253
Pearson, H.H.W. [2273], Angola K001009170
Mann, G. [1959], Cameroon K000029213
Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8554], Cameroon K000029219
Mann, G. [1959], Cameroon K000029212
Binuyo, A. [35484], Cameroon K000029240
Breteler, F.J. [283], Cameroon K000029228
Thomas, D.W. [4987], Cameroon K000029246
Maitland, T.D. [207], Cameroon K000029216
Mann, G. [1959], Cameroon K000029211
Lely, H.V. [P.129], Nigeria K000393868
Migeod, F. W. H. [27], Cameroon K000029238
Migeod, F. W. H. [27], Cameroon K000029239
Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9244], Cameroon K000029224
Etuge, M. [451], Cameroon K000029254
Savory, H. J. [36599], Cameroon K000029235
Brenan, J.P.M. [0s.n.4], Cameroon K000029241
Hepper, F.N. [1094], Nigeria Brillantaisia patula 3641.000
Jan 1, 1988 Letouzey, R. [13252], Cameroon Brillantaisia bauchiensis K000029242
Jan 1, 1988 Thomas, D.W. [7149], Cameroon Brillantaisia bauchiensis K000029245
Perkins, B.L. Brillantaisia nyanzarum 33272.000
Deighton, F.C., Sierra Leone Brillantaisia nitens 13066.000
Brenan, J.P.M. [8534], Nigeria Brillantaisia nitens 25220.000
Brenan, J.P.M. [8458], Nigeria Brillantaisia nitens 26746.000
Burtt, B.L. [B16], Nigeria Brillantaisia nitens 4217.000

First published in Fl. Oware 2: 68 (1818)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Daniel, T.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2009). The California Academy of Sciences Gulf of Guinea Expeditions (2001, 2006, 2008) VII. Acanthaceae of São Tomé and Príncipe Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, IV, 60: 623-674.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Vollesen, K. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae(1): 1-285.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Benoist in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 60: 335.
  • F.T.A. 5: 40
  • Fl. Oware. 2: 68, t. 100 (1818)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Daniel, T.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2009). The California Academy of Sciences Gulf of Guinea Expeditions (2001, 2006, 2008) VII. Acanthaceae of São Tomé and Príncipe Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, IV, 60: 623-674.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Biol. Skr. 51(2): 439 (2005).
  • Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. London 28: 90 (1998)
  • Bull. Soc. Bot. France 60: 335 (1913)
  • E.J. 8: 65 (1887)
  • F.T.A. 5: 40 (1899)
  • F.W.T.A. 2: 254 (1931)
  • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 406 (1963)
  • Fl. Owar. 2: 68, t. 100, fig. 2 (1818)
  • Hook., Niger Fl.: 477 (1849)
  • Hooker, Bot. Mag.: t. 4717 (1853), excl. fruit
  • Lebrun & Stork, Enum. Pl. Afr. Trop. 4: 475 (1997)
  • Th. Durand & Schinz, Etud. Fl. Congo 1: 217 (1896)
  • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 267 (1994)

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0