Cicer arietinum L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 738 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is SE. Türkiye to Iran. It is an annual and grows primarily in the temperate biome. It is used as animal food and a medicine and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Iran, Iraq, Turkey

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Central European Rus, China North-Central, Colombia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Great Britain, India, Inner Mongolia, Ireland, Italy, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, New Guinea, New York, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Pakistan, Peru, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vermont, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Classification

Kew's Tree of Life Explorer

Discover the flowering plant tree of life and the genomic data used to build it.

View the Tree of Life
PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce). Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chrtková-Zertová, A., van der Maesen, L.J.G. & Rechinger, K.H. (1979). Papilionaceae I - Vicieae. Flora Iranica 140: 1-89. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gilli, C. & al. (2020). Floristische Neufunde (376-429). Neilreichia 11: 165-227.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. (eds.) (1989). Med-checklist 4: 1-458. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève.
  • Hong, D.Y. (ed.) (2019). Flora of Pan-Himalaya 19(6): 1-130. Science Press, Beijing. Cambridge University Press.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Knapp, W.M. & Naczi, R.F.C. (2021). Vascular plants of Maryland, USA. A comprehensive account of the state's botanical diversity. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 113: 1-151.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-List: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Nikitin, V.V. (ed.) (1949). Flora Turkmenii 4: 1-364. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview. Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Stace, C. (2019). New Flora of the British Isles ed. 4: 1-1266. C & M Floristics.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Zhao, Y.Z., Zhao, L.Q. & Rui, C. (eds.) (2019). Flora Intramongolica, edition 3, 3: 1-513. Typis Intramongolicae popularis, Huhhot.
  • Zhu, X.Y., Zhang, R.P. & He, Y.L. (eds.) (2021). An inventory of legume species diversity of Myanmar: 1-297. China Minzu university press.

Kew Species Profiles

  • Bejiga, G. & van der Maesen, L. J. G. (2006). Cicer arietinum. In: PROTA 1: Cereals and Pulses/Céréales et Légumes Secs [CD-Rom], M. Brink & G. Belay (eds), PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Bosch, C. H., Borus, D. J. & Brink, M. (eds) (2007).  Cereals and Pulses of Tropical Africa - Conclusions and Recommendations based on
    PROTA 1: ‘Cereals and Pulses’
    . PROTA Foundation, Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Coles, S., Maxted, N. & van der Maesen, L. J. G. (1998). Identification aids for Cicer (Leguminosae, Cicereae) taxa. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 55: 243–265.
  • Cubero, J. I. (1987). Morphology of chickpea. In: The Chickpea, M.C. Saxena & K.B. Singh (eds), pp. 35–66, CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Davies, A. M. R., Maxted, N. & van der Maesen, L. J. G. (2007). A natural infrageneric classification for Cicer (Leguminosae, Cicereae). Blumea 52: 379–400.
  • Duke, J. A. (1981). Handbook of Legumes of World Economic Importance. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Geervani, P. (1991). Utilization of chickpea in India and scope for novel and alternative uses. In: Uses of Tropical Grain Legumes: Proceedings of Consultants' Meeting, 27-30 March, 1989, pp. 47–54, ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India.
  • Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Muehlbauer, F. J. & Singh, K. B. (1987). Genetics of chickpea. In: The Chickpea, M.C. Saxena & K.B. Singh (eds), pp. 99–125, CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Zohary, D., Hopf, M. & Weiss, E. (2012). Domestication of Plants in the Old World, 4th Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • van der Maesen, L. J. G. (1987). Cicer L. - origin, history and taxonomy of chickpea. In: The Chickpea, M.C. Saxena & K.B. Singh (eds), pp. 11–34, CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  • van der Maesen, L. J. G., Maxted, N., Javadi, F., Coles, S. & Davies, A. M. R. (2007). Taxonomy of the genus Cicer revisited. In: Chickpea Breeding and Management, S. S. Yadav, R. Redden & W. Chen (eds), Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce). Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chrtková-Zertová, A., van der Maesen, L.J.G. & Rechinger, K.H. (1979). Papilionaceae I - Vicieae. Flora Iranica 140: 1-89. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gilli, C. & al. (2020). Floristische Neufunde (376-429). Neilreichia 11: 165-227.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. (eds.) (1989). Med-checklist 4: 1-458. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Knapp, W.M. & Naczi, R.F.C. (2021). Vascular plants of Maryland, USA. A comprehensive account of the state's botanical diversity. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 113: 1-151.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-List: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Stace, C. (2019). New Flora of the British Isles ed. 4: 1-1266. C & M Floristics.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bak. f., Leguminosae of Tropical Africa: 345 (1929).
  • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 172 (1871), pro parte.
  • Gams in Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mitt.-Eur. 4 (3): 1498, fig. 1528 (1924).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 738 (1753).
  • Popov in Bull. Appl. Bot. Gen. Pl. Breed. 21: 177, figs. 15, 16 (1929).
  • Purseglove, Tropical Crops 1: 246, fig. 37 (1968).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

International Legume Database and Information Service

  • Ali, S. I. (1977). Papilion. In: Flora of West Pakistan, No 100.
  • Ambasta, S. P. (1986). The useful plants of India
  • Avetisyan, V. E. (1962). In: Flora Armenii, Vol. 4. Jerevan. (Rus)
  • Backer, C. A. (1963). Flora of Java. Groningen, The Netherlands
  • Balashev, L. L., Ed. (1970). Dictionary of useful plants in twenty european languages.
  • Bonnier G. & Layens G. (1970). Flore complete portative de la France de la Suisse et...
  • Chefranova, Z. V. (1987). In: Flora Partis Europaeae URSS, Vol. 6. Leningrad. (Rus)
  • Geideman, T. S. (1986). Opredelitel vysshikh rasteni Moldavskoi SSR, 3rd ed.
  • Horn, P. E. & Hill, G. D. (1987). What Legume is That?
  • Karyagin, I. I. (1954). In: Flora Azerbaijana, Vol. 5. Baku. (Rus)
  • Kiselevski A. I. (1967). Latino-russko-belorusski botanicheski slovar. Minsk. 160 p.
  • Korotkova, E. E. (1955). In: Flora Uzbekistanica, Vol. 3. Taschkent. (Rus)
  • Linczevsky, I. A. (1948). In: Flora URSS, Vol. 13. Mosqua, Leningrad. (Rus)
  • Nikitin, V. V. & Geldikanov, A. (1988). Opredelitel rastenyi Turkmenistana. Leningrad. (Rus)
  • Parham, J. W. (1972). Plants of the Fiji Islands
  • Polhill, R, M. (1990). Legumineuses. In: Flore des Mascareignes, Vol 80. J. Bosser et a
  • Rasulova, M. R. & Karimova, V. V (1978). In: Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR, 2nd ed., Vol. 5. Leningrad. (Rus)
  • Rudd, V. E. (1980). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1:428-458 Fabaceae
  • Stace, C. (1991). New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge Univ. Press
  • Stancevicius, A. (1971). In: Lietuvos TSR flora, Vol. 4. Vilnius. (Lit)
  • Townsend, C. C. & Guest, E. (1974). Flora of Iraq. Vol. 3. Baghdad.
  • Ulziykhutag, N. (1989). Bobovye Mongolskoi Narodnoi Respubliki, Vol. 2. Doct. Thes.
  • Van der Maesen, L. J. G. & Somaa (1989). Plant Resources of SE Asia 1. Pulses. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Van der Maesen, L. J. G. (1972). Cicer L., a monograph of the genus...
  • Varma, S. K. (1981). Flora of Bhagalpur. Dicotyledons
  • Vaughan, R. E. (1937). Mauritius Inst. Bull. 1(1). Catalogue of flowering plants ...
  • Visyulina, O. D. (1954). Leguminosae. In: Flora URSR, Vol. 6. Kiev. (Ukr)

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5949] K001122618 Unknown Type Material Yes
Brenan, J.P.M.; Sandwith, N.Y. [2519] United Kingdom K001041574 Yes
Brenan, J.P.M. [6032] United Kingdom K001041573 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5949] K001122617 Unknown Type Material Yes
[Doargeau] [s.n.] Spain K000764176 Yes
s.coll. [715] United Kingdom K004160062 Yes

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • International Legume Database and Information Service

    • International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0