Hypoestes triflora (Forssk.) Roem. & Schult.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula, Himalaya to China (Yunnan) and Indo-China.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca Acanthaceae (part 2) by Iain Darbyshire, Kaj Vollesen and Ensermu Kelbessa

Morphology General Habit
Creeping, scrambling or more rarely erect herb, annual or usually perennial, 10–300 cm tall, often rooting at lower nodes; stems pubescent to pilose when young, sometimes also glandular-pubescent, ± soon-glabrescent except for long hairs along nodal line.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf pairs ± unequal, ovate, elliptic or lanceolate, 1.5–14 × 0.8–7 cm, base ± asymmetric, rounded to attenuate, margin crenate-serrate or subentire, apex acuminate, upper surface and veins beneath pubescent; lateral veins 4–7(10) pairs; cystoliths arcuate, conspicuous; petiole 0.7–6(10) cm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary and terminal, cymules solitary or usually in umbels of 2–4(6), sometimes partially compounded to form verticils at stem apex; primary peduncle 3–70 mm long, sparsely to densely pubescent, with or without spreading glandular hairs; main axis bracts foliaceous, ovate to oblanceolate, to 20 mm long, one pair per umbel; cymules subsessile or peduncles to 33 mm long, one cymule peduncle in umbel often much longer than others; cymule bracts free but clasping, broadly obovate to narrowly oblong-elliptic, unequal, larger bract 7.5–18.5 × 2.5–10.5 mm, apex rounded, acute or acuminate, variously short-pubescent to long-pilose, sometimes only along margin, surface with or without short spreading glandular hairs; bracteoles unequal, linear-lanceolate, the longer 6–11 mm long, margin hyaline.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx divided almost to base, lobes 5, subequal, linear-lanceolate, 2–8 mm long, glabrous or ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 17–32 mm long, white to mauve, with (blackish-)purple markings on palate of lip held in upper position, pubescent externally; tube 10–13.5 mm long; lip held in upper position oblong, 7–18.5 mm long, apex shortly 3-lobed; lip held in lower position obovate or oblong-elliptic, 7–16 mm long, apex rounded or emarginate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal filaments 6–14 mm long, glabrous; anthers 0.6–2 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style pubescent towards apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 10.5–15.5 mm long, puberulous towards apex with mixed eglandular and glandular hairs, sometimes sparse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds lenticular, (1)1.5–2.5 mm wide, tuberculate.
Distribution
Widespread in tropical Africa from Sierra Leone to Eritrea, south to Angola, Swaziland and South Africa, also in southern Arabia, India to China and Thailand.
Ecology
In montane forest, often in clearings, along margins or in dense scrub along streams; at lower altitudes usually in wet riverine forest (mushitu), also in roadside scrub; often common or dominant in the herb layer; 1100–2200 m.
Conservation
Conservation notes: Widespread and common; Least Concern.

[KBu]

Darbyshire, I. 2015. The genus Hypoestes (Acanthaceae) in Angola. Kew Bulletin 70: 44. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-015-9595-4

Conservation
A very widespread and common species in suitable habitat, assessed as of Least Concern (LC) by Darbyshire (2010). However, it appears to be rather scarce in Angola where it reaches its southwestern-most limit and is currently known from only two historic collections.
Distribution
Widespread in tropical Africa from Sierra Leone to Eritrea, south to Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Swaziland and eastern South Africa; also recorded in southern Arabia and India to China and Thailand. In Angola it is known from the north and the west of the country (Map 1).
Ecology
Forest and moist shaded situations, often in clearings, along forest margins or in dense scrub along streams, also in roadside scrub; often common or dominant in the herb layer.
Type
Type: Yemen, Forsskåls.n. (C, microfiche 60: I. 3 – 4 & 5 – 6, syntypes; LD isosyntype; photos at K!). Fig. 1E, F & G.

[FWTA]

Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Straggling herb 2-3 ft. high, laxly branched, sometimes with viscid hairs
Ecology
In montane forest.

Native to:

Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, China South-Central, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre

Hypoestes triflora (Forssk.) Roem. & Schult. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Dec 11, 2015 Forrest, G. [25314], China K000938729 No
Oct 1, 2012 Gereau, R.E. et al. [7261], Tanzania K000662425 No
Nov 1, 2008 Freidberg [Eth 106 A], Ethiopia K000191275 No
Nov 1, 2004 Bally, P.R.O. [4862], Kenya K000333813 No
Oct 1, 2004 Luke, P.A. [8838], Kenya K000333829 No
Oct 1, 2004 Tweedie [886], Kenya K000333827 No
Oct 1, 2004 Napier, E.R. [2618], Kenya K000333822 No
Oct 1, 2004 Napper, D.M. [1818], Kenya K000333825 No
Sep 1, 2004 Luke, W.R.Q. [8992], Kenya K000333816 No
Jan 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [8943], Cameroon K000109432 No
Jan 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [4047], Cameroon K000109431 No
Jan 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [4573], Cameroon K000339106 No
Jan 1, 1999 Cheek, M. [8720], Cameroon K000339104 No
Jan 1, 1999 Kamundi, D. [672], Cameroon K000339105 No
Jan 1, 1999 Etuge, M. [3390], Cameroon K000339102 No
Jan 1, 1999 Cheek, M. [8685], Cameroon K000339103 No
Jan 1, 1993 Watts, J. [463], Cameroon K000011364 No
Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [375], Cameroon K000011365 No
Jan 1, 1993 Sidwell, K. [59], Cameroon K000518954 No
Jan 1, 1990 Nemba, J. [930], Cameroon K000029405 No
Sep 1, 1988 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8922], Cameroon K000029403 No
Feb 1, 1978 Greenway, P.J. [15078], Kenya K000333830 No
Feb 1, 1978 Greenway, P.J. [14848], Kenya K000333832 No
Jan 1, 1974 Morton, J.K. [1034], Cameroon K000029417 No
May 18, 1897 Schimper [641], Ethiopia K000379099 Yes
May 18, 1897 Schimper [600], Ethiopia K000379100 Yes
May 18, 1897 Schimper [1985], Ethiopia K000379104 Yes
May 18, 1897 Schimper [1985], Ethiopia K000379105 Yes
Jan 1, 1897 Mann, G. [1979], Cameroon K000029414 No
Dawkins, H.C. [777], Uganda 13078.000 No
Tweedie, E.M. [830], Kenya 2828.000 No
Bullock, A.A. [3958], Zambia 2829.000 No
Verdcourt, B. [1037], Kenya 2830.000 No
Tweedie [886], Kenya 2831.000 No
Drummond, R.B. [1387], Tanzania 4233.000 No
Ash [49], Ethiopia 51052.000 No
Preuss [745], Cameroon K000029419 Yes
Preuss [599], Cameroon K000379042 Yes
Preuss [745], Cameroon K000379043 Unknown type material Yes
Hepper, F.N. [7081], Kenya K000333810 No
Napper, D.M. [1820], Kenya K000333821 No
Napier, E.R. [725], Kenya K000333824 No
Thomas, D.W. [2936], Cameroon K000029406 No
Breteler, F.J. [200], Cameroon K000029408 No
Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10810], Cameroon K000029415 No
Sanford, W.W. [5523], Cameroon K000029404 No
Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 28476 A], Cameroon K000029409 No
Migeod, F. W. H. [150], Cameroon K000029416 No
Brenan, J.P.M. [9397], Cameroon K000029418 No
Adamson, J. [89], Kenya K000333826 No
Luke, P.A. [5217], Kenya K000333833 No
Napier, E.R. [5882], Kenya K000333820 No
Dunlap [36], Cameroon K000029411 No
Gossweiler, J. [1085], Angola K001009798 Yes
Maitland, T.D. [257], Cameroon K000029412 No
Vollesen, K. [682], Kenya K000333812 No
Maitland, T.D. [826], Cameroon K000029413 No
Napper, D.M. [1487], Kenya K000333823 No
Lind, E.M. [2828], Kenya K000333817 No
Battiscombe, E. [1045], Kenya K000333815 No
Thomas, D.W. [2633], Cameroon K000029407 No
Williams, J.G. [74-61], Kenya K000333834 No
Dawey [1509], Kenya K000333811 No
Harris, T. [546], Malawi K000614628 No
Thomas, D.W. [9300], Cameroon K000011363 No
Kabuye, C.H.S. [62], Kenya K000333818 No
Greenway, P.J. [13827], Kenya K000333831 No
Bally, P.R.O. [4930], Kenya K000333814 No
Dunlap [77], Cameroon K000029410 No
Bally, P.R.O. [1162], Kenya K000333819 No

First published in Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 1: 141 (1817)

Accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I. (2015). The genus Hypoestes (Acanthaceae) in Angola Kew Bulletin 70(44): 1-10. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2010). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae (Part 2): 287-756.
  • Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2015). Flora Zambesiaca 8(6): 1-314. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Ningombam, D.S. (2014). The family Acanthaceae for the flora of Manipur: 1-115. LAP Lambert academic publishing.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • (Roemer & Schultes 1817: 141);
  • Balkwill, K. & Getliffe-Norris, F. (1984). Taxonomic studies in the Acanthaceae; the genus Hypoestes in southern Africa. S. African J. Bot. 51: 133 – 144.
  • Benoist (1942: 243);
  • Benoist, R. (1942). Les HypoestesAfricains. Notul. Syst. (Paris) 10: 241 – 248.
  • Benoist, R. (1950). QuelquesAcanthacées des colonies PortugaisesAfricanes. Bol. Soc. Brot. Sér. 2, 24: 5 – 39.
  • Brown, R. (1814). List of new and rare plants collected in Abyssinia during the years 1805 and 1810. Appendix 4. In: H. Salt, A voyage to Abyssinia: and travels into the interior of that country, executed under the orders of the British government, in the years 1809 and 1810. F. C. & J. Rivington, London.
  • Clarke (1900: 247);
  • Clarke, C. B. (1900). Hypoestes. In: W. T. Thiselton-Dyer (ed.), Flora of Tropical Africa Vol. 5: 244 – 252. L. Reeve & Co., London.
  • Clarke, C. B. (1901). Hypoestes. In: W. T. Thiselton-Dyer (ed.), Flora Capensis. Vol. 5 (Part 1): 86 – 89. L. Reeve & Co., London.
  • Darbyshire (2010: 720; 2015: 296).
  • Darbyshire, I. (2010). Hypoestes. In: H. Beentje (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Acanthaceae (Part 2): 719 – 729. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darbyshire, I. (2015). Hypoestes. In: J. R. Timberlake & E. S. Martins (eds), Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, pt 6: 295 – 304. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dyer, R. A. (1975). The genera of Southern African flowering plants, Vol. 1. Department of Agricultural Technical Services, Pretoria.
  • EnsermuKelbessa (2006). Acanthaceae. In: I. Hedberg, EnsermuKelbessa, S. Edwards, SebsebeDemissew & E. Persson (eds), Flora of Ethiopia & Eritrea. Vol. 5: 345 – 452. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University & The Department of Systematic Botany, Uppsala University.
  • Hedrén, M. & Thulin, M. (2015). A replacement name for a species of Hypoestes (Acanthaceae) from Somalia. Willdenowia 45: 93.
  • Hedrén, M. (2006a). Hypoestes. In: M. Thulin (ed.), Flora of Somalia, Vol. 3: 425 – 427. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedrén, M. (2006b). New species and combinations in Acanthaceae from Somalia. Willdenowia 36: 751 – 759.
  • Heine (1963: 431); Balkwill & Getliffe-Norris (1984: 139);
  • Heine, H. (1963). Acanthaceae. In: F. N. Hepper (ed.), Flora of West Tropical Africa. Vol. 2: 391 – 432. Second Edition. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Heine, H. (1966). Flore du Gabon 13. Acanthacées. Muséum National d’HistoireNaturelle, Paris.
  • Hiern, W. P. H. (1900). Catalogue of the African plants collected by Friedrich Welwitsch in 1853 – 1861. Dicotyledons, part IV Lentibulariaceae to Ceratophylleae. British Museum (Natural History), London.
  • IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 3.1. Second Edition. IUCN Species Survival Commission, IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
  • IUCN (2013). Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 10.1. Available at http://jr.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf. Accessed 13 Dec. 2013.
  • Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-Book. Third Edition. Cambridge University Press.
  • Makholela, T. (2008). Acanthaceae. In: E. Figueiredo & G. F. Smith, Plants of Angola / Plantas de Angola. Strelitzia 22: 21 – 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
  • McDade, L. A., Daniel, T. F. & Kiel, C. A. (2008). Toward a comprehensive understanding of phylogentic relationships among lineages of Acanthaceaes.l. (Lamiales). Amer. J. Bot. 95: 1136 – 1152.
  • McDade, L. A., Daniel, T. F., Masta, S. E. & Riley, K. M. (2000). Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Justicieae (Acanthaceae): evidence from molecular sequences, morphology and cytology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 435 – 458.
  • Moore (1930: 138);
  • Moore, S. le M. (1880a). Alabastra Diversa. Pars tertia. J. Bot. 18: 1 – 8 & 37 – 42.
  • Moore, S. le M. (1880b). EnumeratioAcanthacearumHerbariiWelwitschianiAngolensis. J. Bot. 18: 193 − 199, 225 − 233, 265 − 270, 307 − 314, 340 − 342 & 362 − 366.
  • Moore, S. le M.(1930). Mr John Gossweiler’s plants from Angola and Portuguese Congo. Acanthaceae. J. Bot. 68, Suppl. II: 126 – 139.
  • Nees von Esenbeck, C. G. D. (1847). Acanthaceae. In: A. de Candolle (ed.), ProdromusSystematis Naturalis RegniVegetabilis. Part 11: 46 – 519. Masson, Paris.
  • Roemer, J. J. & Schultes, J. A. (1817). Systemavegetabilium: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species. Edn 15, Vol. 1. Sumtibus J. G. Cottae, Stuttgardtiae.
  • White, F. (1983). Vegetation of Africa. A Descriptive Memoir to Accompany the UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO Vegetation Map of Africa. UNESCO, Paris.
  • Wickens, G. E. (1976). The Flora of Jebel Marra (Sudan Republic) and its geographical affinities. Kew Bull. Addit. Ser. 5: 1 – 368.
  • Wood, J. R. I., Hillcoat, D. & Brummitt, R. K. (1983). Notes on the types of some names of Arabian Acanthaceae in the Forsskal herbarium. Kew Bull. 38: 429 – 456.

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Benoist in Notulae Syst. 10: 243 (1942)
  • Chev. Bot. 602
  • F.T.A. 5:247
  • Milne-Redhead in Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 9: 27 (1954)
  • Syst. Veg. 1: 141 (1817)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Syst. Veg. 1: 141 (1817).
  • in Fl. Cap. 5: 87 (1901).
  • —Clarke in F.T.A. 5: 247 (1900).
  • —Darbyshire in F.T.E.A., Acanthaceae 2: 720 (2010).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Darbyshire, I. (2015). The genus Hypoestes (Acanthaceae) in Angola Kew Bulletin 70(44): 1-10. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Ningombam, D.S. (2014). The family Acanthaceae for the flora of Manipur: 1-115. LAP Lambert academic publishing.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Bulletin

    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0