Myroxylon peruiferum L.f.

First published in Suppl. Pl.: 233 (1782)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Mexico to NW. Argentina. It is a tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is used as a medicine.

Descriptions

Sartori, Â.L.B., Lewis, G.P., de Freitas Mansano, V. et al. 2015. A revision of the genus Myroxylon (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae)Kew Bulletin 70: 48. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-015-9604-7

Type
Type: America meridionalis, s.d., Mutis s.n. (hototype P00679272, photo!).
Morphology General Habit
Tree, 6 – 30 m tall
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 5 – 15-foliolate, densely to sparsely ferrugineous-tomentose, petiole 0.5 – 3.4 cm long, rachis 3.2 – 14 cm long; petiolules (1 –) 3 (– 6) mm long; leaflets 2.9 – 4.5 (– 10.5) × (1 –) 1.7 – 2 (– 3.3) cm, oblong, elliptic, broadly-elliptic to ovate, apex obtuse, retuse to acuminate, base oblique, rounded or attenuate to subcordate, terminal leaflets narrowly elliptic, obovate, or rhombic, base ovate, margin sinuous, entire, rarely crenate, concolorous, adaxial surface glabrous or sparsely tomentose over the midrib, abaxial surface sparsely-tomentose over the blade, tomentose over midrib, adaxial surface shiny, veins prominent on the abaxial surface, pellucid dots and streaks conspicuous over the entire blade
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes axillary or terminal, longer than the leaves, the axis ferruginous-tomentose, 11 – 20 cm long; bract deltate, apex acute, base truncate, concave, ascending, c. 1 mm long; pedicel 9 – 16 mm long, greyish or ferruginous-tomentose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flower buds globose, apex obtuse; bracteole ovate, under 0.5 mm long Flowers 7 – 9 mm long; calyx 5 – 7 × 9.6 – 11.4 mm, greyish tomentose externally, the lobe apices obsolete; standard petal blade (3.3 –) 4.6 × (6.5 –) 7.5 – 9.7 mm, claw (4 –) c. 6.6 mm long, broadly-ovate, apex rounded or emarginate, base attenuate to rounded, margin entire, externally glabrous (rarely with trichomes at apex); other petals (5.9 –) 7.6 – 10.3 × 0.7 – 1.5 mm, lanceolate, apex acute, base attenuate, margin sinuous, sometimes externally sericeous at apex and on margin; stamens c. 9 mm long, filaments c. 4 mm long, anthers c. 5.2 mm long; ovary c. 6.5 mm long, short-stipitate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a 5.7 – 9.8 cm long samara; seed-chamber 1 – 2 cm long, elliptic; upper margin 1 – 4.5 (rarely up to 7) mm wide; lower margin 1 – 1.8 cm wide; stipe 3 – 9 mm long; calyx sometimes persistent; seed testa rough
Distribution
Myroxylon peruiferum is disjunctly distributed in the Americas, from Mexico to northern Argentina and southern Brazil (Map 1).
Ecology
Myroxylon peruiferum occurs mostly in mesophyllous forest and dry habitats at 540 – 2000 m elevation. In Bolivia, it is known from dry forest on stony, sandy soils and also in remnant forest in the lower valleys.
Conservation
Myroxylon peruiferum is a widely distributed species but is not abundant within its area of occurrence. The impacts of human activities such as deforestation, mainly in areas of Atlantic Forest and mesophyllous forest, have resulted in only small remnants of these vegetation types persisting and thus an associated decline in the populations of M. peruiferum. The species is temporarily assessed to be Near Threatened (NT).
Note
Flowering from June to September, fruiting from August to November. Myroxylon peruiferum is easily distinguished from M. balsamum by the combination of its leaflet with a shiny adaxial surface, the leaflet blade with conspicuous pellucid dots and streaks, broadly-ovate standard petal (4.6 mm wide), the standard claw 6.6 mm long, the calyx lobes obsolete, smaller flowers 10 mm long (without pedicel) and the rough seed testa. On any one specimen of M. peruiferum one can encounter different leaflet shapes. Smaller flowers are seen in specimens from Peru and Bolivia. Glandular trichomes, when present, can be observed on the leaf rachis, the abaxial surface of the leaflets, the inflorescence axis, flower-buds and calyces.
Vernacular
Argentina: Quina-quina (Rodriguez 1110), Quina colorada (Cozzo 75982); Brazil: Bálsamo (A. Maciel 787), Cabreúva (A. L. K. M. Alvernaz 11668), Cabreúva-vermelha (O. Vecchi 191), Caburayba (Bacelli R69645), Óleo-vermelho (J. G. Kulmann 16564); Bolívia: Quina-quina (T. Centurión & R. Quevedo 1209), Ecuador: Chaquino (A. Samaniego & F. Vivar 36); Peru: Quinillo (A. Sagastegui 15087); México: Bálsamo (G. B. Hinton et al. 12296), Cedro-quino (R. Conzatti & Makrinius 3079), Quina (Schreiter 11434), Quina- colorada (S. Venturi 5402).
[KBu]

International Legume Database and Information Service

Conservation
Not Threatened
Morphology General Habit
Perennial, Not climbing, Tree
Vernacular
Balsamo, Pau De Balsamo, Quina Colorada, Quina-quina
[ILDIS]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Colombia
[CPLC]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/62026679/149025717

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
bálsamo
[UNAL]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Distribution
Native to Colombia.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland.
Vernacular
Bálsamo
[UPFC]

Uses

Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
[UPFC]

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • International Legume Database and Information Service

    • International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Bulletin

    • Kew Bulletin
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0