Trifolium arvense L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 769 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Macaronesia, Europe to Central Asia and Iran, N. Africa to NE. Tropical Africa. It is an annual or biennial and grows primarily in the temperate biome. It is used as animal food and a medicine and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Central European Russia, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russia, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, West Siberia, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Altay, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Arkansas, California, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Colombia, Georgia, Haiti, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Irkutsk, Japan, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kuril Is., Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nansei-shoto, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, Oregon, Primorye, Queensland, Sakhalin, South Australia, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Tasmania, Tennessee, Uruguay, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, Western Australia, Wisconsin

Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

Classification

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PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region. Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Minnesota Flora. An illustrated guide to the vascular plants of Minnesota ed. 2: 1-776. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Japan IIb: 1-550. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Knapp, W.M. & Naczi, R.F.C. (2021). Vascular plants of Maryland, USA. A comprehensive account of the state's botanical diversity. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 113: 1-151.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-List: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://newfoundland-labradorflora.ca/checklist/.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Nikitin, V.V. (ed.) (1949). Flora Turkmenii 4: 1-364. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Rechinger, K.H. & al. (1984). Papilionaceae II. Flora Iranica 157: 1-499. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile. Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
  • Schäfer, H. (2021). Flora of the Azores a field guide: 1-445. Margraf Publishers GmbH.
  • Stace, C. (2019). New Flora of the British Isles ed. 4: 1-1266. C & M Floristics.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2010). New floristic records in the Balkans: 13. Phytologia Balcanica 16: 143-165.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R. & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece). Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Salas, MF, Baker, ML (2022). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania, including Macquarie Island: 1-161. Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart. https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/resources/census/.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region. Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Minnesota Flora. An illustrated guide to the vascular plants of Minnesota ed. 2: 1-776. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. (eds.) (1989). Med-checklist 4: 1-458. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève.
  • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Japan IIb: 1-550. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-List: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://newfoundland-labradorflora.ca/checklist/.
  • Meyers, S.C. & al. (eds.) (2020). Flora of Oregon 2: 1-861. Botanical research institute of Texas Press.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Rechinger, K.H. & al. (1984). Papilionaceae II. Flora Iranica 157: 1-499. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile. Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
  • Schäfer, H. (2021). Flora of the Azores a field guide: 1-445. Margraf Publishers GmbH.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2010). New floristic records in the Balkans: 13. Phytologia Balcanica 16: 143-165.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R. & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece). Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Salas, MF, Baker, ML (2022). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania, including Macquarie Island: 1-161. Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart. https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/resources/census/.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

International Legume Database and Information Service

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  • Geideman, T. S. (1986). Opredelitel vysshikh rasteni Moldavskoi SSR, 3rd ed.
  • Hacker, J. B. (1990). A Guide to Herbaceous and Shrub Legumes of Queensland.
  • Harden, G. J. (Ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Vol 2. Kensington: New South Wales
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  • Horn, P. E. & Hill, G. D. (1987). What Legume is That?
  • Isely, D. (1990). Leguminosae, Vascular Flora S. E. U. S. A. 3(2) 1-258
  • Khalilov, E. Kh. (1954). In: Flora Azerbaijana Vol. 5. Baku. (Rus)
  • Kiselevski A. I. (1967). Latino-russko-belorusski botanicheski slovar. Minsk. 160 p.
  • Kolakovsky, A. A. (1985). Flora Abkhazii [Flora of Abkhazia], 2nd ed., Vol. 3. Tbilisi.
  • Langhe, J.-E. de et al. (1983). Nouvelle Flore.. Belgique, .. Luxembourg, .. Nord de la France...
  • Livena, Dz. (1957). In: Latvijas PSR flora Vol. 3. Riga. Leguminosae. (Latv)
  • Mirzoeva, N. V. (1962). In: Flora Armenii Vol. 4. Jerevan. (Rus)
  • Quezel, P. & Santa, S. (1962). Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie et des regions desertiq. merid. 1
  • Roskov, Yu. R. (1990). Revis. of the g. Trifolium in fl. USSR. Cand. thes. Leningrad(Rus
  • Rothmaler W. & al. (1988). Exkursionsflora fur die Gebiete der DDR und der BRD. Bd. 2.
  • Rudd, V. E. (1980). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1:428-458 Fabaceae
  • Seannell, M. J. P. & Syunott, D. M. (1987). Census catalogue of the flora of Ireland, ed. 2. Sttnry Off. Dub
  • Seitler, H. (1977). Die Flora des Furstentums Liechtenstein
  • Sokolov, P. D. (1987). Rastitelnye resursy SSR. (Vol 4). Leningrad(Rus.)
  • Stace, C. (1991). New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge Univ. Press
  • Stancevicius, A. (1971). In: Lietuvos TSR flora, Vol. 4. Vilnius. (Lit)
  • Talts, S. (1959). In: Eesti NSV floora Vol. 3. Tallinn. Papilionaceae. (Es)
  • Terrell, E. E. (1977). Checklist of Names for 3, 000 Vas. Pl... Agric. Handbook No. 505
  • Thulin, M. (1983). Opera Botanica 68:1-223. Leguminosae of Ethiopia
  • Townsend, C. C. & Guest, E. (1974). Flora of Iraq. Vol. 3. Baghdad.
  • Visyulina, O. D. (1954). Leguminosae. In: Flora URSR, Vol. 6. Kiev. (Ukr)
  • Webb, C. J. et al. (1988). Flora of New Zealand Vol IV
  • Yakovlev G, Sytin A & Roskov Y (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Little, J.E.; Brown, M. [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535318 No
Davis, P.H. [45077] Türkiye K000744382 Yes
Riley, L.A.M.; {G.Sm.} [363] United Kingdom K003535320 No
Khairallah, S; Lari; van Slageren, M. [MSSK-187] Lebanon K000744414 Yes
Mooney, H.F. [4418] Lebanon K000744411 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535303 No
Balls, E.K.; Gourlay, W.B. [B.1570] Türkiye K000744402 Yes
Ballard, J.; Golby, E.A. [20] Guernsey K003535349 No
Gardiner, W. [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535267 No
Rawi, A.; Rechinger, K. [21952] Iraq K000744429 Yes
Townsend, C.C. [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535307 No
Turrill, W.B. (Dr.) [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535297 No
Rawi, A. [22279] Iraq K000744430 Yes
Meinertzhagen, R. [s.n.] Syria K000744410 Yes
Ornst, E.; Fedoronchuk, N. [s.n.] Ukraine K003535391 No
Wyatt, J.W. [206] Sweden K003535376 No
Samuelsson, G. [5631] Lebanon K000744413 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535351 No
[Zietag] [s.n.] Denmark K003535381 No
Rawi, A. [22536] Iraq K000744428 Yes
Hubbard, C.E. [12029] United Kingdom K003535314 No
Whiting, M.M. (Miss) [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535330 No
Wright, P.A. [43] Iran K000744426 Yes
Lewis, G.P.; Klitgård, B.B. [3936] Denmark K001905101 Yes
Brummitt, R.K. [20499] Luxembourg K003535371 No
Clarke, C.B. [49414] Germany K003535401 No
Furse, P. [4160] Türkiye K000744380 Yes
McCallum-Webster, M. [7064] United Kingdom K003535310 No
Furse, P. [2511] Iran K000744422 Yes
Salisbury, S. [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535335 No
Davis, P.H.; Polunin, O. [22616] Türkiye K000744379 Yes
Davis, P.H.; Hedge [D. 32019] Türkiye K000744384 Yes
Townsend, C.C. [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535306 No
Roberts, G.A. [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535308 No
Regel [s.n.] K003535366 No
Khairallah, S; van Slageren, M. [MSSK 1692] Lebanon K000744415 Yes
Parker; Cubitt, M. [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535316 No
Rawi, A. [23927] Iraq K000744427 Yes
Summerhayes, V.S. [1860] United Kingdom K003535340 No
Lindberg, H. [s.n.] Finland K003535386 No
Hubbard, C.E. [7/4/58] United Kingdom K003535304 No
Makins, F.K. [73] United Kingdom K003535277 No
Brenan, J.P.M. [204] United Kingdom K001105950 No
Gillett, J.B. [11755] Iraq K000744431 Yes
Trevithick, W.E. [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535325 No
Davis, P.H. [46366] Türkiye K000744407 Yes
Noë; Weitenweber [1363] K003535361 No
s.coll. [[29]] United Kingdom K003535302 No
Mooney, H.F. [6566] Iran K000744418 Yes
Medlin, L.T. [s.n.] United Kingdom K003535287 No
s.coll. [s.n.] K003535312 Yes
Hepper, F.N. [12092] Lebanon K000744416 Yes
Brittinger [s.n.] Austria Trifolium brittingeri K000999671 Unknown Type Material Yes
Brittinger [s.n.] Austria Trifolium brittingeri K000999670 Unknown Type Material Yes
Boissier, P.E. [s.n.] Trifolium preslianum K000999772 Unknown Type Material Yes
Kotschy, C.G.T. [s.n.] Trifolium preslianum K000999773 Unknown Type Material Yes

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
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    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • International Legume Database and Information Service

    • International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

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    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0