Family:
Araceae Juss.

Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan. It is used as animal food and a medicine.

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

General Description
Fronds rounded or pointed at the tip, 1.5-10 mm long, 1.5-8.0 mm wide, 1-1 1/2 times as long as wide, thin or (rarely) gibbous, sometimes with a red spot above the node; nerves 40-70 urn wide; air spaces in 2-4 layers, nearly reaching the margin; roots 7-21, 1 or (rarely) 2 of which perforate the prophylluin; rootcap rounded or pointed on living specimens, always pointed on dried specimens; small, orbicular to reniform shaped, brownish to olive turions without roots present which form under unfavourable conditions and sink to the bottom of the water. INFLORESCENCE/INFRUCTESCENCE: Plants very rarely flowering and fruiting. Ovary with 1-2 ovules (MAHESHWARI and MAHESHWARI 1963 rarely counted up to 4 ovules; but the material of these authors originated from a botanical garden and may have consisted of S. intermedia ). Style about 0.3 mm long; fruit 1.0-1.5 mm long and 1.0-1.5 mm wide; winged edges of the fruit near the top about 0.15 mm wide; seeds 1 (rarely 2), 0.7-1.0 mm long, about 0.7 mm thick, with 12-20 distinct ribs; external seed coat with 8-11 subepidermal cell layers.
Diagnostic
Fronds 1-1.5 (rarely 1 2/3) times as long as wide, with 7-16 (21) nerves; roots 7-21 of which 1-5 but never all perforate the scale like leaflet. Different to S.oligorrhizae which has 5-7 (rarely 3) nerves; roots 2-7, all of which perforate the scale like leaflet.
Distribution
All over the world except arctic, subarctic, very humid and very dry regions or regions with cool summers; rare in mediterranean climates; lacking in South America (except the northwest), in New Zealand and on some other oceanic islands

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 200 m.; Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, acuática
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FWTA]

Lemnaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Floating herb with roundish thallus grouped in colonies, often covering large areas of water
Morphology General Thallus
Thallus green or pink tinged above, pink beneath.

[FTEA]

Lemnaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

Morphology General Habit
Free-floating aquatic.
Morphology General Thallus
Thallus orbicular-ovate, 3–8 mm. long, almost as broad, with 5–11 conspicuous nerves, sometimes tinged pink above, usually purplish beneath.
Growth
Daughter thallus budding from near point of root-insertion in a slit in the mother thallus.
Morphology Roots
Roots 5–15, arising from greatly thickened basal part of thallus; root-cap acute.
Morphology General Buds
Rootless resting bud (turion) produced in adverse conditions, 2 mm. in diameter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers seldom produced, surrounded by a small open spathe in a lateral slit-pouch, with 1 pistillate flower, and 2–3 staminate flowers each consisting of a single stamen.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit slightly wing-margined.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–2.
Figures
Fig. 2/1.
Habitat
Still water, numerous individuals often cohering or floating together on the surface of the water; 450–1200 m.
Distribution
cosmopolitan K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 U2 U3 U4

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Caribbean. Elevation range: 100–200 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Córdoba, Huila, Magdalena.
Habit
Herb, Aquatic.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Native to:

Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Altay, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Palestine, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Senegal, Sicilia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 1979 Meyer, F.G. [8782], Ethiopia K000499421 Yes
Milne-Redhead, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom 23597.000 No
Brenan, J.P.M., Zambia 24318.000 No
Melville, R., United Kingdom 24319.000 No
Harley, R.M. [9121], Tanzania 24320.000 No
Summerhayes, V.S. [1306], United Kingdom 24321.000 No
Leonard, J. [3669], Chad 29962.000 No
Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [4995], Netherlands 30003.000 No
Hepper, F.N. [4794], Sri Lanka 33566.000 No
Hepper, F.N. [4712], Sri Lanka 33567.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [11417], Kenya 33963.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [7049], Tanzania 33966.000 No
Hooper, S. [F], India 34134.000 No
New Guinea 34827.000 No
Townsend, C.C. [73/361], Pakistan 35000.000 No
Simpson, N.D., Egypt 36485.000 No
Broadbent, J.A. [32], Nigeria 6049.088 No
Broadbent, J.A. [12], Nigeria 6049.103 No
Broadbent, J.A. [19], Nigeria 6049.105 No

First published in Linnaea 13: 392 (1839)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Boborov, A.A. & al. (2014). Notes on aquatic and semiaquatic vascular plants of Kamchatka Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 99: 1025-1043.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Güner, A. (ed.) (2018). Resimli Türkiye Floras? (Illustrated Flora of Turkey) 2: 1-1054. ANG Vakf?/Nezahat Gökyi?it Botanik Bahçesi, Istambul.
  • Haigh, A. & Boyce, P.C. (2012). Flora Zambesiaca 12(1): 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (2016). Flora of Japan IVb: 1-335. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Lejoly, J., Ndjele, L. & Geerinck, D. (2008). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 24: 1-37.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Mansor, M., Boyce, P.C., Othman, A.S. & Sulaiman, B. (2012). The Araceae of peninsular Malaysia: 1-146. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Timukhin, I.N. (2008). New records of vascular plants from western Caucasus Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 93: 789-791.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2018). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Jumelle in Fl. Madag. 32: 3 (1937)
  • Lawalrée in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 77: 27 (1945)
  • Maheshwari in Nature 181: 1745 (1958).
  • in Linnaea 13: 392 (1839)

CATE Araceae

  • Landolt, E. 1986. The family of Lemnaceae - a monographic study, 1. Veröff. Geobot. Isnt. ETH (Stift. Rübel). 71: 1-563

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Haigh, A. & Boyce, P.C. (2012). Flora Zambesiaca 12(1): 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Lejoly, J., Ndjele, L. & Geerinck, D. (2008). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 24: 1-37.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2018). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Daubs, Monogr. Lemnac.: 10, t. 3 (1965).
  • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 422 (1895).
  • Hegelm., Lemnac. Monogr.: 73, 151, t. 13/10–16, t. 14, 15 (1868).
  • Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 129, fig. 361/B (1968).
  • Jumelle in Fl. Madag. 32: 3 (1937).
  • Lawalrée in Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique 77: 27 (1945).
  • Maheskwari in Nature 181: 1745 (1958).
  • Schleid. in Linnaea 13: 392 (1839).
  • Troupin in Expl. Parc Nat. Garamba 1: 154 (1956).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • CATE Araceae

    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0