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Aloe vera is well known for its succulent leaves and the many uses of the gel obtained from them. This species is widely cultivated and, along with other members of the genus Aloe, is also the subject of intense scientific study with regard to the many claimed therapeutic properties.

Aloe vera (aloe vera)

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1300 - 2600 m.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1300 - 2600 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Vernacular
Rul pu, sawila.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
Aloe vera is well known for its succulent leaves. The colourless jelly-like leaf parenchyma tissue is used in an extraordinary array of everyday products, from dishwashing liquid to yoghurt.

The species is widely cultivated and, along with other members of the genus Aloe, is also the subject of intense scientific study with regard to the many claimed therapeutic properties.

Species Profile

Geography and distribution

Aloe vera is cultivated around the world. It has escaped from cultivation and become naturalised in the Mediterranean, north Africa, the Indian subcontinent, South America and the Caribbean. 

Description

Overview: Aloe vera is a short-stemmed shrubby aloe, frequently suckering and forming dense clumps.

Leaves: The leaves are succulent, erect, forming a dense rosette. The leaves are greyish green, growing to about 50 cm long, with margins that are pinkish with many small spines. The leaf surfaces are sometimes marked with white flecks or spots.

Flowers: The flowers are yellow, tubular, and up to 3 cm long, with anthers and stigma protruding. The flowers are borne in cylindrical racemes on a branched panicle up to 90 cm tall.

Aloe vera was formerly classified as part of the Asphodelaceae family, but this is now included in Xanthorrhoeaceae.

Uses

Aloe vera has been used for centuries and it is more popular today than ever. It is cultivated around the world as a crop for its colourless jelly-like leaf parenchyma known as 'aloe gel'. It is used for a variety of purposes in food, food supplements, herbal remedies and cosmetics.

Aloe vera leaf parenchyma (aloe gel) may be effective when used on the skin against psoriasis, burns, frostbite, and sores caused by the  Herpes simplex virus. Research has shown that, taken orally, aloe gel can help to lower cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol, and can help to lower blood glucose levels in people with type II diabetes.

The green outer layer of the leaves of  Aloe vera yields a bitter, yellow exudate which has very different properties from those of the colourless parenchyma. The bitter leaf exudate has traditionally been used as a laxative. However, research has indicated that the active constituents may have harmful effects and can interact with other medicines and herbal remedies. It should not be given to children or to pregnant or breastfeeding women.

Threats and conservation

Aloe vera is naturalised around the world and is common in cultivation. It is not considered to be threatened.

Cultivation

Aloe vera is easy to cultivate, with no special requirements. It should be grown in a well-draining gritty mix. The compost should be soaked when watering during the growing season, and allowed to dry out between waterings. It can be grown in a cool/warm glasshouse and put outside for the summer. Plants can offset profusely, so propagation is by potting up offsets.

Aloe vera at Kew

Aloe vera , and other Aloe species, can be seen growing in the Princess of Wales Conservatory.

Behind the scenes, scientists in the Herbarium and Jodrell Laboratory at Kew have been carrying out research on Aloe vera and its relatives in the genus Aloe for decades and have published on topics such as the chemistry of the leaves, taxonomy, hybridisation, genetics and leaf surface sculpturing.

Distribution
Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Yemen
Ecology
Aloe vera is a cultivated plant but naturalised populations occur in dry, often rocky and exposed areas.
Conservation
Not considered to be threatened.
Hazards

The bitter yellow leaf exudate can be harmful and should not be taken by children, or by pregnant or breastfeeding women. The colourless leaf parenchyma (gel) can occasionally cause skin irritation.

[UPB]
Use Medicines Digestive System Disorders
Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Infections & Infestations
Exudates - Used in topical medications, applied on the forehead (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Inflammation
Leaves - Used in the treatment of mastitis (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Leaves - Used to alleviate inflammation (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Exudates - Used in topical medications for the treatment of external inflammations (Cadena-González 2010).
Use Medicines Injuries
Leaves - Used in the treatment of burns (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Leaves - Used in poultices and in liquid medicines for healing (Lagos-López 2007). Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014). Leaves - Used in the treatment of injuries (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Exudates - Used in topical medications for the treatment of wounds (Cadena-González 2010).
Use Medicines Neoplasms
Exudates - Used in liquid medicines in the treatment of stomach cancer (Cadena-González 2010).
Use Medicines Pain
Exudates - Used in topical medications, applied on the forehead to alleviate headache (Cadena-González 2010).
Use Medicines Respiratory System Disorders
Exudates - The leaf flesh is blended or prepared in concoction with egg or with honey and lemon juice as a liquid medicine (Cadena-González 2010). Leaves - Used in poultices and in liquid medicines in the treatment of respiratory disorders (Lagos-López 2007). Exudates - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Skin or Subcutaneous Cellular Tissue Disorders
Exudates - Used as a hair treatment (Cadena-González 2010). Exudates - Used as a topical application for acne (Cadena-González 2010).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Social
Used for good luck and to attract customers (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).

[KSP]
Use
Food, food supplements, herbal remedies, cosmetics.

Native to:

Oman

Introduced into:

Algeria, Arizona, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Bolivia, Cambodia, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Cayman Is., China South-Central, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, Galápagos, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf States, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Italy, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Libya, Madeira, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Palestine, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Texas, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Yemen

English
Aloe vera
Spanish
Sábila, aloe, sabila, zabila, acíbar, aloes, gomorresina aloe, áloe, tuna, penca sabila, alcíbar, zábila común.

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Collenette, I.S. [8028], Oman Aloe barbadensis 57301.000

First published in Fl. Indica: 83 (1768)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 1-848. University of the West Indies, Mona.
  • Albano, P.-O. (2003). La Conaissance des Plantes Exotiques: 1-324. Édisud, Aix-en-Provence.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Bono, G. (1996). Flora Y Vegetacion del Estado Táchira Venezuela: 1-951. Museo Regionaledi Scienze Naturali, Torino.
  • Braco, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru: 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Carter, S., Lavranos, J.J., Newton, L.E. & Walker, C.C. (2011). Aloes. The definitive guide: 1-720. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 3: 1-368. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (2000). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1984). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 8: 1-632. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2002). Flora of North America North of Mexico 26: 1-723. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fournet, J. (2002). Flore illustrée des phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique 2: 1325-2538. Gondwana editions.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1986). Flora of Australia 46: 1-247. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Habtemariam, S. (2019). Chapter 26 - Antidiabetic herbal medicines rebranded as dietary supplements Medicinal Foods as Potential Therapies for Type-2 Diabetes and Associated Diseases: 1049-1134. Elsevier Ltd.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1978). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 1: 1-154. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hoyos F., J. (1985). Flora de la Isla Margarita Venezuela: 1-927. Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle.
  • Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1978). Flora of Libya 57: 1-81. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
  • Maire, R. (1958). Flore de l'Afrique du Nord 5: 1-307. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Moscoso, R.H. (1943). Catalogus Florae Domingensis: 1-732. New York.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Oppenheimer, H. (2011). New Hawaiian plant records for 2009 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 220: 5-10.
  • Proctor, G.R. (1984). Flora of the Cayman Islands: 1-834. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
  • Rico, E. & al. (eds.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora Iberica 20: 1-651. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Smitinand, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (1978). Flora of Thailand 1: 1-694. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Stevens, W.D. & al. (eds.) (2001). Flora de Nicaragua 1: 1-943. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Zhengyi, W. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2000). Flora of China 24: 1-431. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2001). Arnoldo's Zakflora ed. 3: 1-287. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Jellin, J. M., Gregory, P. J., et al. (2008). Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. 10th Ed. Therapeutic Research Faculty, Stockton.
  • Reynolds, G. W. (1966). The Aloes of Tropical Africa and Madagascar. Aloes Book Fund, Mbabane.

    Reynolds, T. (ed.) (2004). Aloes: the Genus Aloe. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
  • Cadena-González, A.L. (2010). Study of knowledge on medicinal plants in Zetaquira and Campo Hermoso municipalities (Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia) using quantitative approaches. Faculty of Life Sciences. University of Copenhagen.
  • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Lagos-López, M. (2007). Estudio etnobotánico de especies vegetales con propiedades medicinales en seis municipios de Boyacá, Colombia. Actualidades Biológicas, 29(86), 87-96.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2019). https://doi.org/10.2436/20.1502.01.18 epublication.
  • Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 1-848. University of the West Indies, Mona.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Bono, G. (1996). Flora Y Vegetacion del Estado Táchira Venezuela: 1-951. Museo Regionaledi Scienze Naturali, Torino.
  • Braco, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru: 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Carter, S., Lavranos, J.J., Newton, L.E. & Walker, C.C. (2011). Aloes. The definitive guide: 1-720. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 3: 1-368. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (2000). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1984). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 8: 1-632. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Espejo Serena, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (1993). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 1(2): 1-70. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2002). Flora of North America North of Mexico 26: 1-723. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fournet, J. (2002). Flore illustrée des phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique 2: 1325-2538. Gondwana editions.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1986). Flora of Australia 46: 1-247. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Habtemariam, S. (2019). Chapter 26 - Antidiabetic herbal medicines rebranded as dietary supplements Medicinal Foods as Potential Therapies for Type-2 Diabetes and Associated Diseases: 1049-1134. Elsevier Ltd.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1978). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 1: 1-154. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hoyos F., J. (1985). Flora de la Isla Margarita Venezuela: 1-927. Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle.
  • Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1978). Flora of Libya 57: 1-81. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Leon, H. (1946). Flora de Cuba 1: 1-441. Cultural S. A., La Habana.
  • Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
  • Maire, R. (1958). Flore de l'Afrique du Nord 5: 1-307. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Moscoso, R.H. (1943). Catalogus Florae Domingensis: 1-732. New York.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Oppenheimer, H. (2011). New Hawaiian plant records for 2009 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 220: 5-10.
  • Proctor, G.R. (1984). Flora of the Cayman Islands: 1-834. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
  • Rico, E. & al. (eds.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora Iberica 20: 1-651. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Smitinand, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (1978). Flora of Thailand 1: 1-694. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Stevens, W.D. & al. (eds.) (2001). Flora de Nicaragua 1: 1-943. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Zhengyi, W. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2000). Flora of China 24: 1-431. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/