Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as a medicine and for food.

[FWTA]

Agavaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Shrub about 5 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white with pink lines, very fragrant
Ecology
In drier lowland forest.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2000 m.; Andes, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–2000 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Cundinamarca, Quindío.
Habit
Shrub.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.

[FTEA]

Dracenaceae, Geoffrey Mwachala & Paul Mbugua, Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree, 1.5–15 m high; stem single, up to 30 cm in diameter, or in forest often with a mass of horizontal stems near the ground from which vertical stems arise
Morphology Leaves
Leaves strap-shaped to oblanceolate, sessile, (7–)20–150 cm long, 2–12 cm wide, base attenuate, widening for 2–5 cm and sheathing the stem, apex acute with subulate mucro
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence erect, rarely pendent, paniculate, 15–160 cm long; flowers in multiflowered glomerules; pedicels 2–6 mm long, articulated below the middle
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Buds purple or pink, flowers with tube white, the lobes white with a fine red to purple line down the centre, darker outside, (15–)17–22(–25) mm long, tube 5–11 mm long, lobes 7–12 mm long, up to 3 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits bright orange, depressed globose, 11–19 mm in diameter, lobed when several-seeded; seeds white turning brown, globose to bean-shaped, 4–14 mm in diameter.
Distribution
Throughout tropical Africa
Ecology
Moist forest, often near streams; may be locally common and may form thickets; 600–2250 m
Conservation
Least concern
Note
{i}D. deremensis {/i}var. {i}warneckei {/i}of T.T.C.L. : 20 (1949) is a cultivar of {i}D. fragrans {/i}(L.) KerGawl.; see Bos {i}et al{/i}. in Edin. J. Bot. 49(3): 311–331 (1992).

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
carey, palmita roja, sangre de carey, tronco

[FWTA]

Agavaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Shrub of upland forest above 4, 000 ft. and commonly planted as a hedge, with several stems 8 or 9 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white with pink lines

[FWTA]

Agavaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
A shrub used for hedges or developing into a tree up to 30 ft. high, branched at the base and above, bearing near the top a large crown of leaves several feet long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle about 2 ft. long, arising amongst the leaves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers yellowish green or white tinged red, opening at night, very fragrant
Ecology
In drier forest.

[UPFC]
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.

[FTEA]
Use
Used for hedges/living fences

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Gabon, Haiti, Leeward Is., Malaya, Marianas, Mexico Southeast, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

English
Corn Plant

Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2012 Gereau [6882], Tanzania K000524319 No
Nov 1, 2006 Tchiengue, B. [2278], Cameroon K000437429 No
Jun 1, 2004 Congdon, T.C.E. [631], Tanzania K000522808 No
Dec 1, 2003 Jannerup [280], Tanzania K000522809 No
Jan 1, 2002 Cable, S. [1207], Cameroon K000025684 No
Jan 1, 2002 Mhoro, B. [431], Tanzania K000522814 No
Jan 1, 2002 Ryan, P. [271], Cameroon K000025685 No
Jan 1, 2001 Bjornstad, A.B. [AB565], Uganda K000522773 No
Jan 1, 2001 Beentje, H.J. [915], Kenya K000522780 No
Jan 1, 2001 Greenway, P.J. [6683], Tanzania K000522791 No
Oct 4, 2000 Matthew, K.M. [RHT62043] K000401253 No
Dec 1, 1998 Thomas, D.W. [9253], Cameroon K000436815 No
Jan 1, 1998 Lane, P. [350], Cameroon K000025681 No
Jan 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [7045], Cameroon K000025682 No
Jan 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [7114], Cameroon K000025683 No
Jan 1, 1998 Cable, S. [834], Cameroon K000025686 No
Jan 1, 1998 Cable, S. [834], Cameroon K000025687 No
Jan 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [7193], Cameroon K000025680 No
Feb 1, 1997 Bourne [5046], India K000401254 No
Feb 1, 1997 Deighton, F.C. [6109], Sierra Leone K000402209 No
Jan 1, 1997 Williams, D.E. [927], Bolivia K000523677 No
May 1, 1995 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1535], Cameroon K000437422 Yes
Jan 1, 1994 s.coll. [C-VS2067], Kenya K000522784 No
Jan 1, 1991 Fernández Casas [11791], Equatorial Guinea K000402437 No
Jan 1, 1991 Fernández Casas [11791], Equatorial Guinea K000402438 No
Jan 1, 1990 Volkens [1416], Tanzania K000255937 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Ujor, E. [FHI30305], Nigeria K000402222 No
Jan 1, 1990 Brunt, M. [965], Cameroon K000402435 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 s.coll. [Herb. Amani455], Tanzania K000522805 No
Jan 1, 1990 Purseglove, J.W. [P.637], Uganda K000522765 No
Jan 1, 1990 Purseglove, J.W. [P.637], Uganda K000522766 No
Jan 1, 1990 Plowes, D.C.H. [2059], Zimbabwe K000523118 No
Jan 1, 1990 Biegel, H.M. [2436], Zimbabwe K000523119 No
Jan 1, 1990 Evans, I.B.P. [1730], Uganda K000522769 No
Jan 1, 1990 Greenway, P.J. [6089], Tanzania K000522807 No
Jan 1, 1990 Osmaston, H.A. [2812], Uganda K000522768 No
Jan 1, 1990 Greenway, P.J. [3136], Tanzania K000522803 No
Jan 1, 1990 Eggeling, W.J. [1369/1423], Uganda K000522758 No
Jan 1, 1990 Morkel, A.R. [4516], Zimbabwe K000523120 No
Jan 1, 1990 Lye, K.A. [Ly6413], Uganda K000522759 No
Jan 1, 1990 Friis, I. [1999], Ethiopia K000522680 No
Jan 1, 1990 Bruce [791], Tanzania K000522806 No
Jan 1, 1990 Ford, J. [776], Tanzania K000522799 No
Jan 1, 1990 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [724], Zimbabwe K000523115 No
Jan 1, 1990 Friis, I. [1999], Ethiopia K000522681 No
Jan 1, 1990 Boughey, A.S. [96], Equatorial Guinea K000402224 No
Jan 1, 1990 Meyer, F.G. [7872], Ethiopia K000522676 No
Jan 1, 1990 Chandler, P. [818], Uganda K000522748 No
Jan 1, 1990 Chandler, P. [818], Uganda K000522749 No
Jan 1, 1990 Greenway, P.J. [4917], Tanzania K000522815 No
Jan 1, 1990 Perdue, R.E. [9400], Kenya K000522781 No
Jan 1, 1990 Welwitch [3738], Angola K000523121 No
Jan 1, 1990 Synnott, T.J. [1022], Uganda K000522754 No
Jan 1, 1990 Renvoize, S.A. [1604], Tanzania K000522804 No
Jan 1, 1990 Proctor, J. [661], Tanzania K000522800 No
Jan 1, 1990 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [6520], Zimbabwe K000523116 No
Jan 1, 1990 Dalziel, J.M. [8348], Cameroon K000402436 No
Jan 1, 1990 Chandler, P. [1942], Uganda K000522767 No
Jan 1, 1990 Greenway, P.J. [3136], Tanzania K000522802 No
Jan 1, 1990 Evans, I.B.P. [s.n.], Uganda K000522771 No
Jan 1, 1990 Meyer, F.G. [8945], Ethiopia K000522686 No
Jan 1, 1990 Jack. [427], Kenya K000522774 No
Jan 1, 1990 Semsei, S.R. [3187], Tanzania K000522798 No
Jan 1, 1990 Pawek, J. [7065], Malawi K000523114 No
Jan 1, 1990 Bally [B4271], Tanzania K000522801 No
Jan 1, 1990 Stauffer, H.U. [99], Congo, DRC K000402443 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Dale, I.R. [3766], Kenya K000522777 No
Jan 1, 1990 Lebrun [4763], Congo, DRC K000402441 No
Jan 1, 1984 Whitfield? [s.n.], Guinea K000255904 lectotype Yes
Jan 1, 1982 Friis, I. [1227], Sudan K000522674 No
Feb 1, 1979 Whyte, A. [s.n.] K000522772 No
Feb 1, 1979 Henty, E.E. [NGF 49280], New Guinea K000523723 No
Feb 1, 1979 ? Jack ? [5195], Kenya K000522787 No
Feb 1, 1979 Collins, D.J. [1435], Thailand K000523724 No
Mar 21, 1968 Erens, J. [1730], Uganda K000522770 No
Feb 13, 1947 van Someren, C. [7328], Uganda K000522760 No
Dawkins, H.C. [503], Uganda 15170.000 No
Eggeling, W.G. [3828], Uganda 16716.000 No
Campbell 34508.000 No
Bally [5720], Kenya 42833.000 No
Scott Elliot, G.F. [7264], Uganda K000255938 Unknown type material Yes
Harris, T. [99], Mozambique K000545087 No
Kersting [A366], Togo K000402197 No
Dalziel, J.M. [8254], Sierra Leone K000402199 No
Deighton, F.C. [4001], Sierra Leone K000402205 No
Deighton, F.C. [4001], Sierra Leone K000402206 No
Aké Assi, L. [9417], Côte d'Ivoire K000402210 Yes
Hall, J.B. [1826], Ghana K000402213 No
Hall, J.B. [GC42394], Ghana K000402216 No
Ide [s.n.] K000402225 No
s.coll. [s.n.] K000402440 No
Faulkner, H.G. [1186], Tanzania K000522788 No
Congdon, T.C.E. [413], Tanzania K000522794 No
Cribb, P. [11079], Tanzania K000522811 No
Mwasumbi, L.B. [13875], Tanzania K000522812 No
Friis, I. [1959], Ethiopia K000522679 No
Gilbert, M.G. [4222], Ethiopia K000522683 No
Friis, I. [9782], Ethiopia K000522685 No
Speke [612] K000522747 No
Katende [700], Uganda K000522753 No
Eggeling, W.J. [E.3828], Uganda K000522763 No
s.coll. [s.n.] K000523719 No
Tanner, R. [5053], Tanzania K000522797 No
Hepper, F.N. [8114], Côte d'Ivoire K000402211 No
Mphamba [119], Mozambique K000614325 No
Bally, P.R.O. [5778], Tanzania K000522778 No
Congdon, T.C.E. [413], Tanzania K000522795 No
Bally, P.R.O. [5720], Kenya K000522785 No
Timberlake, J. [5308], Malawi K000614655 No
Dawkins, H.C. [540], Uganda K000522755 No
Friis, I. [1959], Ethiopia K000522678 No
Deighton, F.C. [4586], Sierra Leone K000402203 No
Jackson, T.H.E. [338], Kenya K000522775 No
MacGregory, W.D. [437], Nigeria K000402217 No
Mwangoka, M.A. [4245], Tanzania K000524024 No
Deighton, F.C. [2452], Sierra Leone K000402201 No
de Wilde, W.J.J.O. [10240], Ethiopia K000522684 No
Malaisse, F. [4264], Côte d'Ivoire K000522628 No
s.coll. [s.n.] K000523720 No
Friis, I. [2186], Ethiopia K000522682 No
Dawkins, H.C. [503], Uganda K000522756 No
Hansen, O.J. [888], Kenya K000522786 No
Luke, P.A. [4166], Kenya K000522783 No
Thomas, A.S. [Th836], Uganda K000522752 No
s.coll. [s.n.] K000402227 No
Deighton, F.C. [4616], Sierra Leone K000402207 No
Ghesquière [3884], Congo, DRC K000402442 No
Eggeling, W.J. [E.3399], Uganda K000522761 No
Abeid, Y.S. [2199], Tanzania K000524025 No
Eggeling, W.J. [E.3532], Uganda K000522762 No
Schlieben, H.J. [1687], Tanzania K000522792 No
Archbold, M.E. [2894], Tanzania K000522810 No
s.coll. [s.n.] K000523727 No
Smith, A.C. [9442], Fiji K000402046 No
Talbot, P.A. [1412], Nigeria K000402223 No
Moore, T. [s.n.] K000402226 No
Faulkner, H.G. [1186], Tanzania K000522789 No
Scott Elliot, G.F. [7439], Uganda K000522750 No
s.coll. [s.n.] K000523722 No
Onyeachusim [FHI54003], Nigeria K000402220 No
Dummer, R.A. [4554], Uganda K000522751 No
Meyer, F.G. [9017], Ethiopia K000522675 No
Deighton, F.C. [2453], Sierra Leone K000402202 No
Chevalier, A. [14784], Guinea K000402200 No
van Someren [Sh.Sh.99], Kenya K000522779 No
Deighton, F.C. [4586], Sierra Leone K000402204 No
Willan, R.L. [223], Tanzania K000522796 No
Balsinhas, A. [2388], Mozambique K000523113 No
Luke, P.A. [4166], Kenya K000522782 No
Jackson, T.H.E. [338], Kenya K000522776 No
Faulkner, H.G. [1186], Tanzania K000522790 No
Watkins, G. [474], Tanzania K000522793 No
Smith, A.C. [9442], Fiji K000402047 No
s.coll. [s.n.] K000402228 No
Timberlake, J. [5420], Mozambique K000614409 No
Harris, T. [99], Mozambique K000613136 No
Yamada, T. [191], Congo, DRC K000402444 No
Onyeachusim [FHI54003], Nigeria K000402219 No
Methuen [175], Zimbabwe K000523117 No
Deighton, F.C. [4616], Sierra Leone K000402208 No
Vigne, C. [3500], Ghana K000402212 No
Onyeachusim [FHI54266], Nigeria K000402221 Yes
Lebrun [4763], Congo, DRC K000522627 No
Gavage [7], Gabon K000402439 No
FitzGibbon, H. [11], Tanzania K000522813 No
Eggeling, W.J. [E.3828], Uganda K000522764 No
Onochie, C.F.A. [FHI34342], Nigeria K000402218 No
s.coll. [s.n.], South Africa K000402229 No
Dawkins, H.C. [503], Uganda K000522757 No
Dalziel, J.M. [8254], Sierra Leone K000402198 No
Swaine [GC43792], Ghana K000402215 No
Friis, I. [6035], Ethiopia K000522687 No
s.coll. [s.n.] K000523721 No
Swaine [GC43792], Ghana K000402214 No
Etuge, M. [1202], Cameroon K000540344 No
MacGregory, W.D. [437], Nigeria K000402191 No
Meyer, F.G. [7852], Ethiopia K000522677 No
Jan 1, 1987 Borhidi, A. [87237], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523045 No
Feb 1, 1979 Greenway [1678] Dracaena deremensis K000523683 No
Feb 1, 1979 Greenway [2367] Dracaena deremensis K000523684 No
Renvoize, S.A. [1604], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis 7330.000 No
Gardner, H.M. [3014], Kenya Dracaena deremensis K000523038 No
[Proclier, J.] [661], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523039 No
Semsei, S.R. [3173], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523040 No
Borhidi, A. [82164], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523044 No
Johnston, H.H. [176], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523041 No
Azima, S. [674], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523043 No
Greenway, P.J. [6441], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523042 No
Compère, P. [1434], Congo, DRC Dracaena butayei K000522610 No
May 1, 2013 Zapfack, L. [747], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000798147 No
May 1, 2013 Etuge, M. [2319], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000798148 No
Jun 1, 2000 Keming, E. [40 FM], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000798149 No
Feb 1, 1997 Hambler, D. [179], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000402196 No
Feb 1, 1997 Wimbush, S.H. [FHI41823] Dracaena deisteliana K000402192 No
Jan 1, 1991 Casas, F. [11957], Equatorial Guinea Dracaena deisteliana K000522614 No
Feb 1, 1979 Bauer, P.S. [139], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522617 No
Feb 1, 1979 Brenan, J.P.M. [9577], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522624 No
Feb 1, 1979 Bauer, P.S. [139], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522616 No
Feb 1, 1979 Boughey, A.S. [94], Equatorial Guinea Dracaena deisteliana K000522615 No
Jan 1, 1976 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9260], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522613 No
Jan 1, 1976 McClintock, A. [202], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402186 No
Jan 1, 1976 McClintock, A. [202], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402185 No
Jan 1, 1976 Latilo, M.G. [FHI34370], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522612 No
Jan 1, 1976 Tuley, P. [2115], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402187 No
Jan 1, 1976 Coombe, D.E. [DEC95], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402190 Yes
Jan 1, 1966 Dalziel, J.M. [8348], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000402195 No
Jan 1, 1966 illegible [357], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522619 No
Jan 1, 1966 Dundas [FHI20374], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402194 No
Etuge, M. [99], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522622 No
Brunt, M. [626], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522618 No
Hall, J.B. [1681], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402189 No
Chapman, J.D. [4230], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402188 No
illegible [1328], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522620 No
Breteler, F.J. [MC178], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522623 Yes
Cable, S. [3405], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000025655 No
Etuge, M. [99], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522621 No
Chapman, J.D. [4645], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402193 No

First published in Bot. Mag. 27: t. 1081 (1808)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L. Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1987). A Geographical Checklist of the Micronesian Monocotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 20: 19-129.
  • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
  • Mwachala, G. & Mbugua, P.K. (2007). Dracaenaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-43.
  • National Parks Board Singapore (2006). Vascular Plant Life Checklist Pulau Ubin www.nparks.gov.sg/nparks_cms/cms/cmsmgr/data/6/PlantChkList.xls.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon. Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2020). Flore du Gabon 54: 1-132. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Velayos, M. & al. (eds.) (2018). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 10: 1-491. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • in Bot. Mag. 1081 (1808).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1987). A Geographical Checklist of the Micronesian Monocotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 20: 19-129.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
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  • National Parks Board Singapore (2006). Vascular Plant Life Checklist Pulau Ubin www.nparks.gov.sg/nparks_cms/cms/cmsmgr/data/6/PlantChkList.xls.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2020). Flore du Gabon 54: 1-132. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Baker in Flora of Tropical Africa 7: 440 (1898)
  • Baker in Journal of Botany 12: 165 (1874)
  • Baker in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 14: 529 (1875)
  • Bos in Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 6: 77 (1997).
  • Bos, Dracaena in W Afr.: 69, t. 13, photo 12 (1984)
  • H. J. Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas p. 639 (1994)
  • Hamilton, Uganda forest trees: 78 (1981)
  • Hepper, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3 (1): 157 (1968)
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 21 (1949)
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Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
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  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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  • Kew Science Photographs

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  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

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