Genus:
Gloriosa L.

Gloriosa superba L.

Flame lily is a tuberous herb, which is widespread in tropical and southern Africa and in tropical Asia. The generic name Gloriosa means 'full of glory' and the specific epithet superba means 'superb', alluding to the striking red and yellow flowers.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 2600–2600 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Bogotá DC, Cundinamarca.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.

[FWTA]

Liliaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Common forest climber
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers turning from yellow to red.

[FTEA]

Colchicaceae, Kim Hoenselaar. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Herb, stem erect, simple or branched, sometimes not higher than 40 cm, or plant scandent or climbing, up to several meters long.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, sometimes opposite or verticillate and clustered, sometimes clustered above the middle of the stem, sessile, base sometimes sheathing the stem, ranging from linear, elliptic-lanceolate, elliptic to ovate, 6–17.5 cm long, 0.4–5 cm wide, apex acute, acuminate, falcate or ending in a tendril.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary, sometimes terminal, different shades of yellow, orange, red, crimson, purple/mauve stripes or fading purple, often bicolored; pedicel erect, recurved apically, 3.5–18 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth sometimes at the base connate into a short tube, up to 2 mm long; perianth segments (strongly) reflexed, base clawed, narrowly elliptic-linear, oblong-lanceolate, sometimes ovate to obovate, 29–85 mm long, 4–25(–38) mm wide, the margins sometimes crisped,apex acuminate to acute, sometimes falcate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments filiform, sometimes flattened, 10–45 mm long; anthers straight to curved, 5.5–15 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 4–13 mm long, 1–5 mm wide; style 9–50 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 37–50 mm long, 10–14 mm in diameter; seeds 4 mm.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
Flame lily is a climber with spectacular red and yellow flowers, but all parts of the plant (especially the tubers) are extremely poisonous and can be fatal if eaten.

Flame lily is a tuberous herb, which is widespread in tropical and southern Africa and in tropical Asia. The generic name Gloriosa means 'full of glory' and the specific epithet superba means 'superb', alluding to the striking red and yellow flowers.

All parts of the plant, but especially the tubers (swollen, underground stems), are extremely poisonous and the ingestion of flame lily has caused many accidental deaths. It has also been used to commit murder, suicide, to induce abortions and to poison dogs. African porcupines and some moles are reputed to be able to consume the roots with no ill effects.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Native to tropical and southern Africa, and temperate and tropical Asia (where it occurs in China, Indochina and from the Indian Subcontinent to the Lesser Sunda Islands). It has been found up to 2,500 m above sea level. It is widely naturalised (including in Europe and Australia) and is listed as a weed in Australia and in some parts of the USA. Gloriosa superba is common throughout much of its range. However, in some areas of India (Patalkot, Chhindwara District), Bangladesh and Sri Lanka it has been assessed as rare, and natural populations are believed to be in decline. In the Indian state of Orissa, for example, where G. superba used to be common, it is now on the verge of extinction according to the Wildlife Institute of India.

Description

A perennial, tuberous, climbing (sometimes erect) herb, up to 4 m long. The leaves are simple (undivided). The leaf blade has strong, parallel nerves and ends in a tendril-like spiral. The solitary flowers are bisexual, showy, pendulous and 4.5-7 cm in diameter. The pedicel (flower stalk) can be up to 20 cm long. The flowers are usually red and yellow with crisply waved margins. The fruit is a large (up to 6 cm long), oblong capsule. It is thought that pollination is probably carried out by butterflies and sunbirds.

Threats and conservation

Flame lily is in decline in some areas of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and southern Africa, due to over-collection of the seeds and tubers. Although commercially cultivated in southern India, it is estimated that pharmacies and drug manufacturers in India fulfil up to 75% of their raw material demand from wild populations.

Conservation assessments carried out by Kew

Gloriosa superba is being monitored as part of the Sampled Red List Index Project, which aims to produce conservation assessments for a representative sample of the world's plant species. This information will then be used to monitor trends in extinction risk and help focus conservation efforts where they are needed most.

Learn more about this project

Uses

Flame lily has a wide variety of uses, especially within traditional medicine as practised in tropical Africa and Asia (including Ayurvedic medicine in India). It contains the alkaloid colchicine, which has been used effectively to treat acute gout, intestinal worms, infertility, wounds and other skin problems. It has also been used as an antidote for snake bite, as a laxative, and to induce abortion. It has proven useful in the treatment of chronic ulcers, arthritis, cholera, colic, kidney problems and typhus.

Colchicine is widely used as an experimental tool in the study of cell division, as it can inhibit mitosis (a type of cell division), induce polyploidy (cells containing more than two sets of chromosomes), and has been used in the treatment of cancer.

Gloriosa superba is widely cultivated as an ornamental for its stunning flowers. It is the national flower of Zimbabwe (where it is protected from illegal harvesting under the Parks and Wildlife Act).

This species at Kew

Flame lily can be seen growing in the Temperate House, Palm House and Waterlily House at Kew.

Dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of Gloriosa superba are held in Kew's Herbarium, where they are available to researchers from around the world, by appointment. The details of some of these, including images, can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

Specimens of flame lily tubers are also held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection, where they are available for study, by appointment.

Distribution
China
Ecology
Sparse savanna woodlands, grasslands, sand dunes, in abandoned fields or at the boundaries of cultivated ground and roadsides; in sandy-loam soil.
Conservation
Least Concern according to IUCN Red List criteria.
Hazards

All parts of the plant are extremely poisonous due to the presence of toxic alkaloids, including colchicine; ingestion can be fatal; contact can result in skin irritation.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Plant erect or scandent, up to several meters long, but sometimes less than 0.4 m tall, glabrous or almost so
Morphology Leaves
Leaves spreading, linear to ovate, 60–250 x 2–50 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually yellow, orange or red with yellow centre, rarely white on pedicels 45–200 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Tepal
Tepals 35–80 x 5–30 mm, acute, often with undulate margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 12–50 mm long; anthers 5–13 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary oblong, glabrous; style 12–50 mm long with branches 2.5–10 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 20–60 x 10–25 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds subglobose, c. 4–5 mm in diam.
Distribution
N1–3; C2; S1–3 widespread in Africa and S Asia, also cultivated elsewhere.
Ecology
Altitude range 20–850 m.
Vernacular
Adin tuki, dabalole, tamaior (Som.-N); faraji diil, gheloac (Som.-S).
Note
A highly variable species. Three forms can roughly be distiguished in Somalia, a scandent more or less broad-leaved and large-flowered plant in S1–3 agreeing with typical G. superba, a more or less erect, narrow-leaved and small-flowered plant in all parts of the country agreeing with G. baudii and G. minor, and an erect, fairly broad-leaved and large-flowered plant in N3 agreeing with G. aurea.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 2600 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[UPFC]
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

[KSP]
Use
Medicinal, ornamental.

[FSOM]
Use
Cultivated as an ornamental. Used as a cure against snake-bites.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Cook Is., Fiji, Gilbert Is., Line Is., Nauru, New South Wales, Norfolk Is., Queensland, Réunion, Santa Cruz Is., Society Is., Solomon Is., Suriname, Tokelau-Manihiki, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

English
Climbing lily, Flame lily, Superb lily

Gloriosa superba L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Nov 12, 2012 Heath [2334], Botswana K000499501 No
Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2772], Cameroon K000518671 No
Dec 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [4359 r], Cameroon K000212735 No
Mar 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [2189], Cameroon K000025720 No
Mar 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1749], Cameroon K000025718 No
May 1, 1995 Cable, S. [10], Cameroon K000011652 No
Jan 1, 1995 Cheek, M. [5706], Cameroon K000011653 No
Jan 1, 1995 Ndam, N. [184], Cameroon K000542353 No
Jan 1, 1995 Cheek, M. [5721], Cameroon K000011654 No
Jan 1, 1994 Quartin-Dillon [48], Ethiopia K000365965 isosyntype Yes
Jan 1, 1994 Schimper [1437], Ethiopia K000365966 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 1994 Schimper [1437], Ethiopia K000365967 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 1994 Mooney, H.F. [8815], Ethiopia K000480416 No
Jan 1, 1994 Amshoff, G.J.H. [7614], Ethiopia K000480417 No
Jan 1, 1994 Turton, D. [76], Ethiopia K000480413 No
Feb 3, 1924 Wight, R. [5757], Nepal K000524985 Yes
Brummitt, R.K. [8868], Malawi 34784.000 No
Ash [575], Ethiopia 37437.000 No
6606.000 No
Meller, C.J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000365963 Yes
Meller, C.J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000365964 Unknown type material Yes
Cecil, E. [224], Zimbabwe K000365961 holotype Yes
Gilbert, M.G. [3136], Ethiopia K000480414 No
Gilbert, M.G. [2195], Ethiopia K000480415 No
Alstrup, V. [156], Somalia K000480422 No
Thollon, M. [22], Gabon K000480430 No
Pobéguin, C.H.O. [383], Guinea K000480434 No
Rogers, F.A. [25245], South Africa K000480452 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104968 Yes
Gilbert, M.G. [4657], Ethiopia K000480418 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104975 Yes
Sangkhachand, B. [1059], Thailand K000480443 No
Phillipson, P.B. [4136], Madagascar K000480441 No
T [141], Malaysia K000480450 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104974 Yes
Carpenter, T. [275], Maldives K000480447 No
Xiulan, H. [281], China K000480448 No
Haswell, D.R. [134], Sierra Leone K000480436 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104970 Yes
Buwalda, P. [7156], Indonesia K000480445 No
Monyrak, M. [207], Cambodia K000480444 No
Pollard, B.J. [103], Cameroon K000025719 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104967 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104969 Yes
Hutton, I. [640], Australia K000480451 No
Jayasuriya, A.H.M. [1439], Sri Lanka K000480446 No
Phillipson, P.B. [4136], Madagascar K000480442 No
Pobéguin, C.H.O. [383], Guinea K000480435 No
Synnott, T.J. [449], Somalia K000480420 No
Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 5157], Myanmar K001104972 Yes
Mathew, B. [42631], India K000480449 No
Eagleton, G. [71], Somalia K000480423 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157], Nepal K001104971 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104973 Yes
Wallich, N. [5757G], Nepal K000524984 Yes
Kasmi, S.M.A. [643], Somalia K000480419 No
Stern, W.T. [s.n.] Gloriosa verschuurii K000524986 Unknown type material Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 305 (1753)

Accepted by

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  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (2000). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
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  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
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  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1987). A Geographical Checklist of the Micronesian Monocotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 20: 19-129.
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  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1978). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 1: 1-154. Trustees of British Museum, London.
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  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
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  • Maroyi, A. (2012). The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) - ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy: 1-194. Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
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  • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
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Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Contu, S. (2008). Gloriosa superba. Assessment using IUCN Categories and Criteria 3.1 (IUCN 2001). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dauncey, E.A. (2010). Poisonous Plants: A Guide for Parents & Childcare Providers. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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  • Nellis, D.W. (1997). Poisonous Plants and Animals of Florida and the Caribbean. Pineapple Press Inc.
  • Rawat, G.S. (ed.) (2008). Special habitats and threatened plants of India. ENVIS Bulletin Wildlife and Protected Areas 11(1). Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun.
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Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Andr., Bot. Rep. t. 129
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  • Bot. Reg. 1: t. 77
  • F.T.A. 7: 563
  • Morton, W. Afr. Lilies & Orch. fig. 12.
  • Sp. Pl. 305 (1753)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (2000). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Geerinck, D. (2012). Contribution à la flore d' Afrique centrale: Colchicaceae et Flagellariaceae Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 33: 1-30.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1987). Flora of Australia 45: 1-521. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hoenselaar, K. (2005). Colchicaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-20.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Maroyi, A. (2012). The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) - ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy: 1-194. Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Smith, A.C. (1979). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 1: 1-495. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2009). Flora Zambesiaca 12(2): 1-208. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1979-1983). Flora Malesiana 9: 1-600. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Velayos, M. & al. (eds.) (2018). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 10: 1-491. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Baker in Flora of Tropical Africa 7: 563 (1898).
  • Baker in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 17 (103): 457 (1879)
  • Blundell in Wild Fl. E. Africa: 423, t. 409, 488 (1987).
  • Demissew in Fl. Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 184–185 (1997).
  • Field in Kew Bulletin 25: 243–244 (1971).
  • Hanid in Upland Kenya Wild Flowers ed. 2: 322, t. 149 (1994).
  • Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa 3 (1): 106 (1968).
  • L. in Sp. Pl. 2: 437 (1753).
  • Maroyi in Kirkia 18(1): 3 (2002).
  • Thulin in Fl. Somalia 4: 67–68 (1995).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

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