Paris quadrifolia L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 367 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Europe to Mongolia. It is a rhizomatous geophyte and grows primarily in the temperate biome.

Distribution

Native to:

Altay, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Russia, Chita, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Inner Mongolia, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Krasnoyarsk, Manchuria, Mongolia, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sardegna, South European Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Tuva, Ukraine, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

Classification

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PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Grubov, V.I. (2001). Key to the Vascular Plants of Mongolia 1: 1-411. Science Publishers, Inc. Enfield, USA. Plymouth, U.K.
  • Güner, A., Kandemir, A., Menemen, Y., Yıldırım, H., Aslan, S., Ekşi, G., Güner, I. & Çimen, A.Ö. (eds.) (2018). Resimli Türkiye Florası (Illustrated Flora of Türkiye) 2: 1-1054. ANG Vakfı Nezahat Gökyiğit. Botanik Bahçesi Yayınları. İstanbul.
  • Hassler, M. & Muer, T. (2022). Flora Germanica: alle Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands in Text und Bild 1: 1-864. Verlag Regionalkultur, Uberstadt-Weiher.
  • Ji, Y. (2021). A monograph of Paris (Melanthiaceae): 1-203. Science press Beijing.
  • Komarov, V.L. (ed.) (1935). Flora SSSR 4: 1-586. Izdatel'stov Akademii Nauk SSSR, Leningrad.
  • Malyschev L.I. & Peschkova , G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 4: 1-238. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Nikolin, E.G. (2020). Opredelitel' vysshikh rasteniy Yakutii: 1-895. Moskva : Tovarishchestvo Nauchnykh Izdaniy KMK Novosibirsk "Nauka".
  • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1958). Flora Kazakhstana 2: 1-290. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
  • Rico, E. & al. (eds.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora Iberica 20: 1-651. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Stace, C. (2019). New Flora of the British Isles ed. 4: 1-1266. C & M Floristics.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Zhengyi, W. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2000). Flora of China 24: 1-431. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Özhatay, F.N., Kültür, S. & Gürdal, M.B. (2011). Check-list of additional taxa to the supplement Flora of Turkey V. Turkish Journal of Botany 35: 589-624.

Kew Species Profiles

  • Alpine Garden Society (2012). Plant Portraits: Paris quadrifolia.
  • Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 105–121.
  • Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (2012).
  • Biological Records Centre (BRC) (2012). Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora: Paris quadrifolia. Available at: http://www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/index.php?q=plant/paris-quadrifolia (accessed 10 December 2012).
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles (BSBI). Maps Scheme.
  • Chase, M. W. & Reveal, J. L. (2009). A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 122–127.
  • Davies, D. (1995). Enwau Cymraeg ar Blanhigio: Welsh Names of Plants. National Museums and Galleries of Wales.
  • Gledhill, D. (2008). The Names of Plants, 4th Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. < www.iucnredlist.org> (accessed 10 December 2012).
  • JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee) (2012). The Vascular Plant Red Data List for Great Britain: Conservation Designations for UK Taxa.
  • Jacquemyn, H., Brys, R. & Hutchings, M. J. (2008). Biological Flora of the British Isles: Paris quadrifolia L. Journal of Ecology 96: 833–844.
  • Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Mabey, R. (1996). Flora Britannica. Sinclair-Stevenson, London.
  • Stace, C. (2010). New Flora of the British Isles, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • The Plant List (2010). Paris quadrifolia.
  • Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M & Webb, P. A. (1980). Flora Europaea, Volume 5 Alismataceae to Orchidaceae (Monocotyledones). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • WCSP (2012). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet:

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Grubov, V.I. (2001). Key to the Vascular Plants of Mongolia 1: 1-411. Science Publishers, Inc. Enfield, USA. Plymouth, U.K.
  • Komarov, V.L. (ed.) (1935). Flora SSSR 4: 1-586. Izdatel'stov Akademii Nauk SSSR, Leningrad.
  • Malyschev L.I. & Peschkova , G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 4: 1-238. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1958). Flora Kazakhstana 2: 1-290. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Zhengyi, W. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2000). Flora of China 24: 1-431. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Özhatay, F.N., Kültür, S. & Gürdal, M.B. (2011). Check-list of additional taxa to the supplement Flora of Turkey V. Turkish Journal of Botany 35: 589-624.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Besser, W. [s.n.] Russia K000844361 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] K002777304 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] France K001613424 No
s.coll. [132] Austria K001613426 No
Giles, J.J. [124] United Kingdom K000899974 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] France K002777176 No
[Prort] [s.n.] France K001613425 No
Ruhsam, M. [DMR3] United Kingdom K001768107 Yes
[Khurtine] [s.n.] K002777177 No
Ledebour [s.n.] Russia K000844362 Unknown Type Material Yes
Melville, R. United Kingdom K:SPC-05484.000 No
Fay, M.F. [MFF107] United Kingdom K000696452 Yes

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0