Phormium tenax J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

First published in Char. Gen. Pl.: 48 (1776)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Norfolk Island, New Zealand. It is a perennial and grows primarily in the temperate biome. It is has environmental uses, as a medicine and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Antipodean Is., Chatham Is., New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is.

Introduced into:

Ascension, Azores, Canary Is., Falkland Is., Great Britain, Guatemala, Hawaii, Ireland, Juan Fernández Is., Kermadec Is., Madeira, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, St.Helena, Tasmania, Tristan da Cunha

Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Albano, P.-O. (2003). La Conaissance des Plantes Exotiques: 1-324. Édisud, Aix-en-Provence.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands. Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili. Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Espejo Serena, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (2000). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 1(9-11): 1-337. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1985). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 3. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 1: 5-103.
  • Maire, R. (1958). Flore de l'Afrique du Nord 5: 1-307. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
  • Moore, L.B. & Edgar, E. (1970). Flora of New Zealand 2: 1-354. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1. Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Schäfer, H. (2021). Flora of the Azores a field guide: 1-445. Margraf Publishers GmbH.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Revised Edition, Volume 2. Special Publications; Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 97: 989-1919.
  • de Salas, MF, Baker, ML (2022). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania, including Macquarie Island: 1-161. Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart. https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/resources/census/.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands. Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili. Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Espejo Serena, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (2000). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 1(9-11): 1-337. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1985). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 3. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 1: 5-103.
  • Moore, L.B. & Edgar, E. (1970). Flora of New Zealand 2: 1-354. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1. Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Revised Edition, Volume 2. Special Publications; Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 97: 989-1919.
  • de Salas, MF, Baker, ML (2022). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania, including Macquarie Island: 1-161. Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart. https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/resources/census/.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
New Zealand K000524858 Yes
Worley, I. [192], New Zealand K000524857 Yes
New Zealand K000524859 Yes
Colenso [s.n.], New Zealand K000524860 Yes
K000524862 Yes
Colenso [4535*] K000524861 Yes

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0