Genus:
Ammannia L.

Ammannia baccifera L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb to 80 cm high, glabrous throughout
Morphology Leaves
Leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, (7–)30–120 x (1.5–)5–22 mm, attenuate-cuneate at the base, acute to subobtuse at the tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes usually many-flowered; peduncles 1(–2) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Hypanthium
Hypanthium campanulate, 1–1.2 mm long including shortly triangular sepals, sinuse-horns absent or minute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals absent (?always)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 0.1–0.3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose, 1–2 mm in diam., slightly fleshy, exserted by a quarter to a half from hypanthium
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 0.4 mm long, yellowish brown
Distribution
N1; C2; S3 tropical Africa, Asia, Australia.
Ecology
Altitude range 50–960 m.

[FTEA]

Lythraceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1984

Morphology General Habit
Annual often red erect or ascending simple or ± branched herb or sometimes a minute ephemeral, less often subshrubby and possibly a short-lived perennial, (0.6–)2–80 cm. tall:stems 4-angular or ± winged.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves linear to elliptic, 0.7–7 cm. long, 0.15–1 (–1.6) cm. wide, narrowed to the apex, nearly always narrowed to a cuneate base, rarely obtuse or subcordate, glabrous or very slightly asperulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Dichasia (1–)3–many-flowered, ± lax to somewhat dense; peduncles 1(–2) mm. long; pedicels 1–2.5(–4) mm. long; bracteoles minute, linear-lanceolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx red or green; tube turbinate-campanulate, 1–1.2(–2) mm. long; lobes 4, broadly triangular, 1–1.5 mm. long; intermediary appendages absent or very inconspicuous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals nearly always absent or odd minute ones sometimes present.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, as long as the calyx-lobes or shorter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary globose, 0.7–1.2 mm. in diameter; style 0.1–0.3 mm. long or stigma sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule red, globose, 1–2.5 mm. in diameter, 1/2–3/4-included within the calyx.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds brownish, concavo-convex, 0.4 mm. in diameter.
Figures
Fig. 12/26–30, p. 39.
Habitat
Silty areas by standing and running water, black soil with grass and sedges by water, seepage zones and pools on rock outcrops in woodland and grassland, also as a weed in rice; 0–1620 m.
Distribution
K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1 throughout tropical Africa from Ethiopia to N. Cape Province, Namibia and Botswana, NE. Africa, Madagascar, Mascarenes, India, Sri Lanka, Java, Philippines, China, Japan and AustraliaEurope (introduced), Middle East, Russia, also introduced into the West Indies, etc.

[FZ]

Lythraceae, A. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Annual erect or ascending ± branched herb up to 80 cm. high.
Morphology Stem
Stems and branches reddish, 4-angular, winged to the apex.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 7–70 × 1·5–10 (16) mm., elliptic to linear, attenuate at the apex, attenuate-cuneate or obtuse to subcordate at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Dichasia (1–2)3- to many-flowered, lax or dense; peduncles 1 (2) mm. long; bracteoles linear-lanceolate; pedicels 1–2·5 (4) mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-tube 1–1·2 mm. long, turbinate-campanulate; lobes 4; appendages 0 or inconspicuous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 0.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, as long as the calyx-lobes or shorter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 0·7–1·2 mm. in diameter, globose; style 0·1–0·3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 1–2·5 mm. in diameter, globose, 1/2 to 3/4 included in the calyx.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 0·4 mm. in diameter, brownish.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, 20–70 cm tall, stems branched, often woody below, ascending, 4-angled to narrowly winged above, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, narrowly lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate to oblanceolate, 8–40 × 1.5–8 mm, base cuneate to rounded to cordate, clasping, apex acute to obtuse, margins entire, 1-nerved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 3–15 or more in dense, sessile, axillary cymes; pedicel ± 1 mm; bracteoles linear, ±1 mm, not reaching the calyx tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tube broadly campanulate, tapering at base, 1–2 mm, becoming globose in fruit to 2 mm in diameter; lobes triangular; appendages lacking
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals absent or minute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, included or barely exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style shorter than ovary, ± 0.5 mm; Capsule ± 2 mm diameter, just exceeding the calyx lobes
Ecology
Wet and marshy places, rice fields, rivers banks; alt. 10–20 m
Phenology
Aug.- Dec.
Distribution
Tropical and north Africa, Arabia east through Iran to Afghanistan, India, China to Vietnam and Malaysia; Australia and Caribbean Islands. Common in central and eastern Iraq.

[FWTA]

Lythraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Erect herb, to 2 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers mauve
Ecology
At edges of pools.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Ghana, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Greece, Jamaica, Japan, Leeward Is., Nicobar Is., Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

Ammannia baccifera L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jul 1, 2011 Heath [1661], Botswana K000566926 No
Sep 1, 2009 Ward [9535], South Africa K000566214 No
Sep 1, 2009 Robinson [6952], India K000566237 No
Jan 12, 2005 Rahman, M.A. et al. [4087C], Bangladesh K000260572 No
Jan 1, 1918 Perrottet [s.n.], India K000904098 Yes
Barnes, E. [809], India 12252.000 No
Bidgood, S. [6302], Tanzania K000468123 No
Perrottet [356], India K000904092 Yes
Perrottet [s.n.], India K000904096 Yes
Bidgood, S. [5954], Tanzania K000468471 No
Perrottet [353], India K000904095 Yes
Heyne, H.B. [H.I. 2100 a] K000904097 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2099] Ammannia indica K001115542 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2099] Ammannia indica K001115147 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2099], Myanmar Ammannia indica K001115146 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2099] Ammannia indica K001115149 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2099], Myanmar Ammannia indica K001115145 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2099] Ammannia indica K001115148 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 2098] Ammannia vescicatoria K001115140 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2098] Ammannia vescicatoria K001115141 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2098] Ammannia vescicatoria K001115142 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2098] Ammannia vescicatoria K001115143 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2098] Ammannia vescicatoria K001115139 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2098] Ammannia vescicatoria K001115144 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2098] Ammannia vescicatoria K001115138 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2098], Myanmar Ammannia vescicatoria K001115137 Yes
Schimper [778], Ethiopia Ammannia attenuata K000310058 Unknown type material Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 120 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Berhaut, J. (1979). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 6: 1-636. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boutique, R. (1967). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Lythraceae: 1-27. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1990). Flora of Australia 18: 1-349. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Kiew, R. & al. (eds.) (2021). Malayan Forest Records 49: 1-403.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà Nội : Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India. Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Nowak, A. & Nobis, M. (eds.) (2020). Illustrated Flora of Tajikistan and adjacent areas 2: 367-766. PAN, Polish academy of sciences.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1981). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 6: 1-725. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Polatschek, A. & Rechinger, K.H. (1968). Flora Iranica 51: 1-9. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Santisuk, T. & Balslev, H. (eds.) (2014). Flora of Thailand 11(4): 499-666. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Singh, M. & Ali, S.J. (2008). A study on aquatic Angiosperms of district Mau (East U.P.). Journal of East African Natural History 32: 877-890.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1994). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Lythraceae: 1-62.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. & Duyfjes, B.E.E. (2014). Ammannia (Lythraceae) in Malesia. Blumea 59: 11-18.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 2: 478.
  • —Koehne in Engl. Pflanzenr. Lythrac. 53

Flora of Iraq

  • Boulos, Fl. Egypt 2: 147 (2000);
  • Collenette, Wild Flow. Saudi Arabia 546 (2000);
  • Dar in Nasir & Ali, Fl. Pak. 78: 9 (1975);
  • Ghazanfar, Fl. Oman 2: 67 (2007);
  • Gilbert in Fl. Ethiop. & Eritr. 2(1): 405 (2000);
  • Graham in J. Arn. Arb. 66: 405 (1985);
  • Haining Qin & Graham in Fl. China 13: 275 (2007).
  • Hiern in Fl. Trop. Afr. 2: 478 (1871);
  • Hutch. & Dalz., Fl. W. Trop. Afr. ed. 2, 1: 165 (1954);
  • Koehne in Engl., Pflanzenr. 1V. 216: 53, fig. 5M (1903);
  • Linnaeus ed. 2: 175 (1762);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 120 (1753)
  • Polatschek in Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 51: 8 (1968);
  • Verdcourt in Fl. E. Trop. Afr. Lythraceae: 45 (1995);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Berhaut, J. (1979). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 6: 1-636. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boutique, R. (1967). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Lythraceae: 1-27. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1990). Flora of Australia 18: 1-349. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1981). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 6: 1-725. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Polatschek, A. & Rechinger, K.H. (1968). Flora Iranica 51: 1-9. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. G. Gilbert & M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 647 (1921).
  • A. Fernandes & Diniz in Garcia de Orta 6: 101 (1958).
  • A. Fernandes in Consp. Fl. Angol. 4: 177 (1970).
  • A. Fernandes in Fl. Moçamb. 73: 40 (1980).
  • A. Fernandes in Flora Zambesiaca 4: 308 (1978)
  • C.B.Cl. in Hook, f., Fl. Brit Ind. 2: 569 (1879).
  • Hanid in A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 154 (1974).
  • Hewson in Fl. Austr. 18: 97 (1990).
  • Hiern in Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 478 (1871).
  • Immelman in Bothalia 21: 40 (1991).
  • K Matthew, Fl. Tamilnadu Carnatic 3, 1: 605 (1983).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 165 (1954).
  • Koehne in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 1: 258 (1880)
  • Koehne in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 4: 391 (1883)
  • Koehne in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 216: 53, fig. 5M (1903).
  • Kostermans et al., Weeds of rice in Indonesia: 338, fig. 4, 154 (1987).
  • L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2: 175 (1762).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 120 (1753)
  • Pohnert & Roessler in Prodr. Fl. SW.-Afr. 95: 2 (1966).
  • S.A. Graham in Journ. Arn. Arb. 66: 405 (1985).

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Iraq

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
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